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जगाम 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form जगाम 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.19.7

निशम्य तद्वधं भ्राता हिरण्यकशिपुः पुरा ।
हन्तुं भ्रातृहणं क्रुद्धो जगाम निलयं हरेः ।। ८-१९-७ ।।

Gita Press translation “Hearing of his death, his (elder) brother, Hiraṇyakaśipu (Prahrāda’s father), full of rage, went of yore to the abode of Hari in order to kill the slayer of his brother.”

जगाम is derived from the धातुः √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७)

In the धातु-पाठः, the धातुः √गम् has one इत् letter – the ऌकार: following the मकार:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus the धातुः √गम् is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the गम्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So गम्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) गम् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) गम् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) गम् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) गम् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) गम् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) गम् गम् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) ग गम् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) ज गम् + अ । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(9) जगाम । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः, a penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।


1. In the last five verses of Chapter Fourteen of the गीता, where has 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः (used in the last step of this example) been used?

2. The अनुवृत्ति: of “अनद्यतने” comes in to the सूत्रम् 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिट् (used in step one of the example) from a सूत्रम् which we have studied. Which one is it?

3. Which सूत्रम् is used for the णत्वम् in भ्रातृहणम्?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The sage Viswamitra came to Ayodhya to see Dasaratha.” Use the अव्ययम् “द्रष्टुम्” for “to see” and (a लिँट् form) of √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) with the उपसर्ग: “आङ्” (ending ङकार: is an इत्) for “to come.”

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Hearing (having heard) Kaikeyi’s words, Dasaratha became angry.” Use the अव्ययम् “श्रुत्वा” for “having heard” and (a लिँट् form) of √क्रुध् (क्रुधँ क्रोधे (कोपे) ४. ८६) for “to become angry.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“On account of Sri Krishna’s advice, Arjuna’s delusion vanished.” Use तृतीया विभक्ति: (to express the meaning of “on account of”) with the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “उपदेश” for “advice.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “मोह” for “delusion” and use (a लिँट् form) of √नश् (णशँ अदर्शने ४. ९१) for “to vanish.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a “अनँङ्”-आदेश: in the verse?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-114 हशि च been used in the verse?

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