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चक्रुः 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form चक्रुः 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 12.8.24

ननृतुस्तस्य पुरतः स्त्रियोऽथो गायका जगुः ।
मृदङ्गवीणापणवैर्वाद्यं चक्रुर्मनोरमम् ।। १२-८-२४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका – No commentary on this verse.

Gita Press translation “The damsels danced and the songsters sang, while other Gandharvas played charmingly on clay tomtoms, lutes and small drums before him.”

Note: “played” is the translation for “वाद्यं चक्रु:”।

चक्रुः is derived from the धातुः √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०)

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √कृ-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः, by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले the √कृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √कृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√कृ” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √कृ-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is झि।

(1) कृ + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) कृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कृ + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झि” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) कृ + उस् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “उस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

Note: “उस्” is a कित्-प्रत्यय: as per 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्। Hence 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

Note: If 6-1-77 इको यणचि (which is a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी compared to 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य ) would apply here (before 6-1-8) there would be no अच् (vowel) left in the धातु: and 6-1-8 would become inapplicable.

By 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, while reduplication is yet to be done, a substitution shall not be made in the place of a vowel on the basis of a vowel that is the cause for reduplication. (Hence 6-1-8 applies first.)
Note: This rule only temporarily stops the substitution (in this case रेफ: in place of ऋकार:) until reduplication is done. Once reduplication is done, the substitution (in this example in step 9) does takes place.

(5) कृ कृ + उस् । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(6) कर् कृ + उस् । By 7-4-66 उरत्‌, a ऋवर्ण: of the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) takes the अकारादेश: when a प्रत्यय: follows.
By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(7) चर् कृ + उस् । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(8) च कृ + उस् । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(9) चक्रुस् । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

(10) चक्रुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Can you spot a word in Chapter One of the गीता wherein the विवक्षा (as in this example) is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्?

2. Where else (besides in चक्रु:) has 7-4-66 उरत्‌ been used in the verse?

3. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “इयँङ्”-आदेश: in the form स्त्रिय: (प्रातिपदिकम् “स्त्री”, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्)?

4. Where has 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति been used in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sita saw an amazing deer sporting in the forest.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “अद्भुत” for “amazing”, the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “मृग” for “deer”, the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “क्रीडत्” (ending in the शतृँ-प्रत्यय:) for “sporting” and (a लिँट् form of) √दृश् (दृशिँर् प्रेक्षणे १. ११४३) for “to see.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In order to deceive Sita, the deer imitated Sri Rama’s voice.” Use the अव्ययम् “वञ्चयितुम्” for “in order to deceive” and the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “स्वर” for “voice.” Use (a लिँट् form) of √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०) with the उपसर्ग: “अनु” for “to imitate.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “स्य”-आदेश: in the form तस्य (सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “तद्”, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्)?

2. Where has 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् been used in the verse?

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December 2011