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जग्राह 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form जग्राह 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.16.5

कस्य हेतोर्निजग्राह कलिं दिग्विजये नृपः ।
नृदेवचिह्नधृक् शूद्र: कोऽसौ गां यः पदाहनत् ।
तत्कथ्यतां महाभाग यदि कृष्णकथाश्रयम् ।। १-१६-५ ।।

Gita Press translation “Why did the king (merely) subdue the spirit of the Kali age in the course of his conquest (instead of killing him outright and thus ridding humanity of his evil influence, once for all)? For though disguised as a prince, he was after all a vile Śūdra, who took into his head to strike a cow and a bull with his foot. Therefore, O blessed one, tell me all that, if it is connected with the story of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.”

जग्राह is derived from the धातुः √ग्रह् (क्र्यादि-गणः, ग्रहँ उपादाने, धातु-पाठः # ९.७१)

The अकारः at the end of “ग्रहँ” gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। This इत् letter has स्वरित-स्वरः and hence this धातु: is उभयपदी। Here it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) ग्रह् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) ग्रह् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) ग्रह् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Note: This prevents 3-1-81 क्र्यादिभ्यः श्ना (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) ग्रह् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) ग्रह् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) ग्रह् ग्रह् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) ग ग्रह् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) ज ग्रह् + अ । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(9) जग्राह । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः, a penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।


1. Where has √ग्रह् (क्र्यादि-गणः, ग्रहँ उपादाने, धातु-पाठः # ९.७१) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in Chapter Nine of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the word अहनत् used in the verse, the commentator says अहनत् = अहन्। शपो लुगभावश्छान्दस:। What does this mean?

3. Commenting on the word पदा, the commentator says पदा = पादेन। Which सूत्रम् is used to get the alternate form पदा for पादेन? (We have not discussed this सूत्रम् in the class, but we’ve seen it in a prior post. It is in the first quarter of Chapter Six of the अष्टाध्यायी।)

4. Where has 6-4-51 णेरनिटि been used in the verse?

5. Which सूत्रम् is used for the आकारादेश: in the form गाम् (प्रातिपदिकम् “गो”, द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Why did Sri Rama subdue the ocean?”

Easy questions:

1. Instead of नृदेवचिह्नधृक् शूद्र:, some editions have the text as नृदेवचिह्नधृक् छूद्र:। Which सूत्रम् allows for these two optional forms?

2. Where has 7-2-107 अदस औ सुलोपश्च been used in the verse?

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