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चुक्रोश 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form चुक्रोश 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.34.6

स चुक्रोशाहिना ग्रस्तः कृष्ण कृष्ण महानयम् ।
सर्पो मां ग्रसते तात प्रपन्नं परिमोचय ।। १०-३४-६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका – No commentary on this verse.

Gita Press translation “Seized by the python, he cried, “Kṛṣṇa, O enchanter of all, this huge serpent is devouring me, O darling! (Pray), deliver me, who have sought you as my refuge.”

चुक्रोश is derived from the धातुः √क्रुश् (भ्वादि-गणः, क्रुशँ आह्वाने रोदने च, धातु-पाठः # १. ९९२)

In the धातु-पाठः, the धातुः √क्रुश् has one इत् letter – the अकार: following the शकार:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus the धातुः √क्रुश् is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the क्रुश्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So क्रुश्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) क्रुश् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) क्रुश् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) क्रुश् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) क्रुश् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) क्रुश् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) क्रुश् क्रुश् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) कु क्रुश् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) चु क्रुश् + अ । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(9) चुक्रोश । By 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च, when a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases: i) The अङ्गम् ends in a पुक्-आगमः
or ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा।


1. Where has 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः (used in step 8 of the example) been used in the last twenty verses of Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “अय्”-आदेश: in the form अयम् (सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “इदम्”, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)?

3. Can you spot a णिच्-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

4. Where has 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे been used in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When Lakshmana cut off Surpanakha’s nose and ears, she screamed.” Use the अव्यये यदा/तदा। Use a (लिँट् form of) √छिद् (छिदिँर् द्वैधीकरणे ७. ३) for “to cut off”, use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “नासिका” for “nose” and the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “कर्ण” for “ear.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A huge serpent devoured many cowherd boys.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “महत्” for “huge” and use the प्रातिपदिकम् “गोपाल” in the masculine for “cowherd boy.” Use a word from the verse for “serpent” and use (a लिँट् form) of √खाद् (खादृँ भक्षणे १. ५१) for “to devour.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “ना”-आदेश: in the form अहिना (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “अहि”, तृतीया-एकवचनम्)?

2. Where has 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः been used in the verse?

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