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चचार 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form चचार 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.23.32

स चचार महीमेतां संयतात्मेन्द्रियानिलः ।
भिक्षार्थं नगरग्रामानसङ्गोऽलक्षितोऽविशत् ।। ११-२३-३२ ।।

असङ्ग आसक्तिशून्यः । अलक्षितः श्रैष्ठ्यमद्योतयन् ।।

Gita Press translation “With his mind, senses and breath fully controlled he traversed this globe and entered towns and villages (only) for (begging) alms (and that too) incognito and unattached.”

चचार is derived from the धातुः √चर् (भ्वादि-गणः, चरँ गत्यर्थ:, धातु-पाठः #१. ६४०)
In the धातु-पाठः, the चर्-धातुः has one इत् letter – the अकार: following the रेफ:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus the चर्-धातुः is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the चर्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So चर्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) चर् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) चर् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) चर् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents the सूत्रम् 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप् (which requires a सार्वधातुकम् affix to follow) from applying.

(4) चर् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) चर् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) चर् चर् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) च चर् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) चचार । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः , a penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।


1. Where has √चर् (भ्वादि-गणः, चरँ गत्यर्थ:, धातु-पाठः #१. ६४०) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the first ten verses of Chapter Three of the गीता?

2. Can you spot a “श”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

3. Use some words from the verse to construct the following sentence in Sanskrit:
“A Sannyasi should traverse this globe, incognito and unattached.” Use प्रातिपदिकम् “सन्न्यासिन्”।

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Accompanied by Sita and Lakshmana, Sri Rama traversed the Dandaka forest.” Use the neuter (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “दण्डकारण्य” for “Dandaka forest.”

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Sankaracarya traversed India, enlightening the people.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “भारतदेश” for “India” and use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “प्रबोधयत्” (ending in the “शतृँ”-प्रत्यय:) for “enlightening.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Hamuman entered Lanka incognito.” Use an adjective from the verse for “incognito (unrecognized)” and use (a लिँट् form) of √विश् (विशँ प्रवेशने ६. १६०) with the उपसर्ग: “प्र” for “to enter.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you recall another (besides 3-4-115 लिट् च used in this example) सूत्रम् (which we have studied) that prescribes the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा?

2. Can you spot a अकारादेश: (letter “अ” used as a substitute) in the verse?

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