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रुक् fNs

Today we will look at the form रुक् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 1-14-44

कच्चित् प्रेष्ठतमेनाथ हृदयेनात्मबन्धुना ।
शून्योऽस्मि रहितो नित्यं मन्यसे तेऽन्यथा न रुक् ।। १-१४-४४ ।।

Gita Press translation “Or is it that you have been torn from your ever most beloved and intimate friend and relation (Śrī Kṛṣṇa) and thus consider yourself desolate; for there can be no other cause of your agony.”

‘रुज्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘रुज्’

(1) रुज् + सुँ ।

(2) रुज् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) रुज् । सकार-लोपः by 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्। Using 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् रुज् gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

(4) रुग् । By 8-2-30 चोः कुः, the पदान्त-जकारः gets the क-वर्गः consonant (गकार:) as a replacement. See question 7.

(5) रुक् / रुग् । By 8-4-56 वाऽवसाने, the झल् letter is optionally replaced by a चर् letter when nothing follows.


1. The अमरकोश: gives six synonyms for the word “रोग:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “रोग” masculine, meaning “sickness.”) One of them is “रुक्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “रुज्” feminine) used in this verse. Please list the other five.
स्त्री रुग्रुजा चोपतापरोगव्याधिगदामयाः ।।२-६-५१।।
(इति सप्त “रोगस्य” नामानि)

2. Apte’s dictionary gives the following meaning for the indeclinable कच्चित् – A particle of interrogation (often translatable by ‘I hope’). A good example is in the गीता 18-72. Please use कच्चित् to form the following sentence in Sanskrit:
“I hope the गीता has been read by you.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “पठित” for “read.”

3. Where has the युष्मद्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used in this verse?

4. Why didn’t the नकार: in the word हृदयेन change to a णकार: even though there is a ऋकार: prior to it in the same पदम्? Which intervening letter blocked the change?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-120 आङो नाऽस्त्रियाम् been used?

6. Can you spot where the सूत्रम् 8-2-30 चोः कुः has been used with a चकारान्त-स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् in the tenth chapter of the गीता? (Steps will be same as in this example.)

7. Which सूत्रम् should actually be applied after step 4? (The application of this सूत्रम् will not change the form.)

8. Can you recall a सूत्रम् (that we have studied) which contains an अपवाद: for 8-2-30 चोः कुः?

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् was used to get प्रेष्ठतमेन + अथ = प्रेष्ठतमेनाथ? (Same one is used in हृदयेन + आत्मबन्धुना = हृदयेनात्मबन्धुना।)

2. Where has 6-1-109 एङः पदान्तादति been used?

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January 2011