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ददत् mNs

Today we will look at the form ददत् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 3-31-31

तदर्थं कुरुते कर्म यद्बद्धो याति संसृतिम् ।
योऽनुयाति ददत् क्लेशमविद्याकर्मबन्धनः ।। ३-३१-३१।।

Gita Press translation “For the sake of this body – which is a source of constant trouble to him and ever follows him, bound by ties of ignorance and destiny – he performs actions (of various kinds), tied to which he goes through repeated births and deaths.”

ददत् is a शतृँ-प्रत्ययान्त-शब्द: derived from the दा-धातु:। Since this धातु: is in the जुहोत्यादि-गणः, the final form is derived through reduplication (अभ्यासः). Here, the दद् of ददत् gets अभ्यस्त-सञ्ज्ञा by 6-1-5 उभे अभ्यस्तम्

‘ददत्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। The विवक्षा here is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्। 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ददत्’

(1) ददत् + सुँ ।

(2) ददत् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) ददत् । सकार लोपः by 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्

(4) Here the शतृ-प्रत्यय: follows an अङ्गम् (दद्) which has the अभ्यस्त-सञ्ज्ञा। Hence 7-1-78 नाभ्यस्ताच्छतुः stops 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः and the शतृ-प्रत्यय: does not take the नुँम् augment.

(5) ददद् । By 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते, a झल् letter that occurs at the end of a पदम् is replaced by a जश् letter.

(6) ददद् / ददत् । By 8-4-56 वाऽवसाने, a झल् letter is optionally replaced by a चर् letter when nothing follows.


1. There are two sections in the अष्टाध्यायी which have rules prescribing duplication (द्वित्वम्). Where are these two sections located?

2. Which of the two sections, mentioned in question 1, is the subject of the अभ्यस्त-सञ्ज्ञा (defined by 6-1-5 उभे अभ्यस्तम्)?

3. In the absence of 7-1-78 नाभ्यस्ताच्छतुः, what would have been the final (undesired) form in this example?

4. In the term “शतु:” used in 7-1-78 नाभ्यस्ताच्छतुः, what is the प्रातिपदिकम् and what विभक्ति: has been used?

5. What kind of सूत्रम् is 7-1-78 नाभ्यस्ताच्छतुः?
a) निषेध-सूत्रम् – A rule which negates (stops the application of) another rule
b) अपवाद-सूत्रम् – A rule which is an exception to another rule
c) नियम-सूत्रम् – A rule which limits the application of another rule
d) अतिदेश-सूत्रम् – A rule which extends the application of another rule

6. Can you find a line in the गीता (Chapter 5) where every word in the line has a शतृ-प्रत्यय:?

7. Please list the two synonyms of the word “क्लेश:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “क्लेश” masculine, meaning “pain/distress”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
आदीनवाऽऽस्रवौ क्लेशे ॥३-२-२९॥
(इति त्रीणि “क्लेशस्य” नामानि)

8. What would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This child follows his mother everywhere.” Use a verb from the example and use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “शिशु” for “child” and the अव्ययम् “सर्वत्र” for “everywhere.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-113 अतो रोरप्लुतादप्लुते been used in this verse?

2. Consider the form क्लेशम्। This is दितीया-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् “क्लेश”. Which सूत्रम् was used to get क्लेश + अम् = क्लेशम्?

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