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सम्राट् mNs

Today we will look at the form सम्राट् mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.21.25

प्रजापतिसुतः सम्राण्मनुर्विख्यातमङ्गलः । ब्रह्मावर्तं योऽधिवसञ्शास्ति सप्तार्णवां महीम् ।। ३-२१-२५ ।।

Gita Press translation “(You know) Emperor Swāyambhuva Manu (son of Brahmā), who is celebrated for his righteous acts, rules over the earth bounded by the seven oceans, having his seat in Brahmāvarta.”

The प्रातिपदिकम् here is ‘सम्राज्’। ‘सम्राज्’ is formed using the affix ‘क्विप्’ with the verbal root √राज् (राजृँ दीप्तौ १. ९५६) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘सम्’। Just like in the case of the affix ‘क्विन्’, the entire affix ‘क्विप्’ takes लोप: (elision.)

सम्राज् + क्विप् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् along with 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The letter ‘इ’ in the affix ‘क्विप्’ is उच्चारणार्थः। The single letter ‘व्’ that remains gets अपृक्त-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-41 अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः। By 6-1-67 वेरपृक्तस्य, this letter ‘व्’ which is अपृक्तः takes लोपः।

The affix ‘क्विप्’ has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ् । By 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्, even though the affix ‘क्विप्’ has taken लोपः, ‘सम्राज्’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(1) सम्राज् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(2) सम्राज् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) सम्राज् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’। Using 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् ‘सम्राज्’ gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

(4) सम्राष् । By 8-2-36 व्रश्चभ्रस्जसृजमृजयजराजभ्राजच्छशां षः the ending letter ‘ज्’ gets the letter ‘ष्’ as a replacement. See question 8.

(5) सम्राड् । By 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते, the झल् letter occurring at the end of a पदम् it is replaced by a जश् letter.

(6) सम्राड् / सम्राट् । By 8-4-56 वाऽवसाने, the झल् letter is optionally replaced by a चर् letter when nothing follows.


1. By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः, the मकार: in सम्राट् should have become an अनुस्वार:। But there is a special rule which keeps the मकार: as a मकार:। We have not studied this special rule in the class, but we can expect to find it below 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः (since it is an exception to 8-3-23.) Can you locate it in the अष्टाध्यायी?

2. Which term used in the verse has the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा? Which one has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा?

3. Where are these two terms (answers to #2) used in the गीता? (Not in a compound, but on their own.)

4. How come 8-2-30 चोः कुः (which is an earlier rule in the त्रिपादी) did not apply instead of 8-2-36 in step 4?

5. Use a word from the verse to compose the following sentence in Sanskrit:
“This (is) a celebrated text.” Use “ग्रन्थ: for “text.”

6. The अमरकोश: gives four synonyms for the word “पुत्र:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “पुत्र” masculine, meaning “son”). One of them is “सुत:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “सुत” masculine) used in this verse. Do you recall the other three? (We have already seen these in a prior example. Search this web site for “सुत”)

7. Where is the धुँट्-आगम: used in the declension table of the प्रातिपदिकम् “सम्राज्”?

8. 8-2-36 व्रश्चभ्रस्जसृजमृजयजराजभ्राजच्छशां षः applies when one of the terms listed in “व्रश्चभ्रस्जसृजमृजयजराजभ्राजच्छशां” –
a) Is at the end of a पदम्
b) Has a झल् letter following
c) Is at the end of a पदम् or has a झल् letter following
d) Is at the end of a पदम् and has a झल् letter following

Easy questions:

1. Please state the rules required to do the पदच्छेद: of सम्राण्मनु:|

2. Where is the सूत्रम् 6-1-113 अतो रोरप्लुतादप्लुते used in this verse?

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