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तुष्टुवु: 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form तुष्टुवु: 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.1.54

दिव्यवाद्यन्त तूर्याणि पेतुः कुसुमवृष्टयः ।
मुनयस्तुष्टुवुस्तुष्टा जगुर्गन्धर्वकिन्नराः ।। ४-१-५४ ।।

No commentary on this verse.

Gita Press translation “Musical instruments played in heaven, showers of flowers rained, sages offered their praises (highly) gratified, the Gandharvas and Kinnaras sang.”

तुष्टुवु: is derived from the धातुः √स्तु (ष्टुञ् स्तुतौ, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. ३८)

The धातुः “ष्टुञ्” has an initial षकारः in the धातु-पाठः। By 6-1-64 धात्वादेः षः सः , there is the substitution of सकारः in the place of the initial षकारः of a धातुः। And as per the न्यायः “निमित्तापाये नैमित्तिकस्याप्यपाय:” (when a cause is gone, its effect is also gone) the टकार-आदेशः for the तकारः, which has come in by 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः, because of the presence of the षकारः, will now be reverted to the तकारः since the cause for the टकारादेश: no longer exists. So we now have “स्तुञ्”।

The ending ञकार: gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and hence takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोप:। Since ञकार: is an इत्, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √स्तु will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – √स्तु will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √स्तु will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √स्तु will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “झि”।

(1) स्तु + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) स्तु + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) स्तु + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झि” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) स्तु + उस् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “उस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
Note: “उस्” is a कित्-प्रत्यय: here as per 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् – A लिँट् affix which is not a पित् – does not have पकार: as a इत् – shall be considered to be a कित् (as having ककार: as a इत्), as long as there is no संयोग: (conjunction consonant) prior to the affix. Hence 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(5) स्तु स्तु + उस् । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, while reduplication is yet to be done, a substitution (in this case “उवँङ्”-आदेशः by 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियँङुवँङौ ) shall not be made in the place of a vowel on the basis of a vowel (in this case the उकार: of “उस्”) that is the cause for reduplication.
Note: This rule only temporarily stops the substitution until reduplication is done. Once reduplication is done, the substitution does takes place (in step 6 below.)

Therefore we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियँङुवँङौ

(5) तु स्तु + उस् । By 7-4-61 शर्पूर्वाः खयः, if a अभ्यास: begins with a शर्-खय् conjunct (a conjunct whose first letter belongs to the शर्-प्रत्याहार: and second letter belongs to the खय्-प्रत्याहार:) then the खय् letter is retained and all other consonants of the अभ्यास: take लोप:। This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः

(6) तु स्त् उवँङ् + उस् । By 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियँङुवँङौ, if a प्रत्यय: beginning with an अच् (vowel) follows, then the (ending letter of the) अङ्गम् is replaced by इयँङ्/उवँङ् in the following three cases – (1) If the अङ्गम् ends in the प्रत्यय: “श्नु” or (2) If the अङ्गम् ends in the इवर्ण: or उवर्ण: of a धातु: or (3) If the अङ्गम् is the word “भ्रू”।
Note: As per 1-1-53 ङिच्च only the ending letter (उकार:) of the अङ्गम् is replaced.

(7) तु स्तुव् + उस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) तुस्तुवुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

(9) तु ष् तुवुः । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययो:, the letter “स्” is replaced by the cerebral “ष्” when preceded either by a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: or a letter of the क-वर्ग: (“क्”, “ख्”, “ग्”, “घ्”, “ङ्”)। This substitution only takes place if the “स्” is an आदेश: (substitute) or part of a प्रत्यय: (affix.)
Note: Recall that the धातु: is listed in the धातु-पाठ: as “ष्टुञ्”। By 6-1-64 धात्वादेः षः सः, there is the substitution of सकारः in the place of the initial षकारः of a धातुः। Now that the सकार: is a substitute, 8-3-59 is able to apply.

(10) तुष्टुवुः । By 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः


1. Where has 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियँङुवँङौ (used in step 6) been used in the first five verses of Chapter Twelve of the गीता?

2. Can you recall a सूत्रम् (which we have studied) in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions √स्तु (ष्टुञ् स्तुतौ, अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. ३८)?

3. Where has 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति been used in the verse?

4. Can you spot a अभ्यास-लोप: in the verse?

5. Can you spot a “णिच्”-लोप: in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When Lord Siva drank the poison, all the gods and sages offered their praises.” Use (a लिँट् form of) √पा (पा पाने १. १०७४) for “to drink.” Use a word from the verse for “offered their praises.” Use the अव्यये यदा/तदा।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the “ङि”-प्रत्यय: been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the णकारादेश: (substitution by “ण्”) is the form तूर्याणि?

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