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चक्रे 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form चक्रे 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.45.44

तयोः सपर्यां महतीं चक्रे भक्त्युपबृंहिताम् ।
उवाचावनतः कृष्णं सर्वभूताशयालयम् ।
लीलामनुष्य हे विष्णो युवयोः करवाम किम् ।। १०-४५-४४ ।।

सपर्यां पूजाम् । सर्वेषां भूतानामाशया अन्तःकरणानि तान्यालयो निवासो यस्य तम् ।

Gita Press translation “(Yama) offered to Them both worship on a grand scale, accompanied with devotion, and, bending low (with humility), addressed (as follows) Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who has His abode in the heart of all created beings (as the Inner Controller of all), “O Viṣṇu (the all-pervading Lord) disguised as a human being by way of sport, what can we do for You both?”

चक्रे is derived from the धातुः √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०)

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √कृ-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः, by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले the √कृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √कृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √कृ will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √कृ will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “त”।

(1) कृ + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) कृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कृ + त । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “त” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “त” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) कृ + एश् । By 3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच्, when they come in place of लिँट्, the affixes “त” and “झ” take the substitutions “एश्” and “इरेच्” respectively.
As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल् शित् सर्वस्य the entire affix “त” (and not just its last letter) is replaced by “एश्”।

(5) कृ + ए । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: As per 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्, the “ए”-प्रत्यय: is a कित् and hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(6) कृ कृ + ए । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, while reduplication is yet to be done, a substitution (in this case रेफादेश: by 6-1-77 इको यणचि) shall not be made in the place of a vowel (in this case the ending ऋकार: of “कृ”) on the basis of a vowel (in this case एकार:) that is the cause for reduplication.
Note: This rule only temporarily stops the substitution until reduplication is done. Once reduplication is done, the substitution does takes place (in step 10 below.)

Therefore we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 6-1-77 इको यणचि

(7) कर् कृ + ए । By 7-4-66 उरत्‌, a ऋवर्ण: of the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) takes the अकारादेश: when a प्रत्यय: follows.
By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a “रँ” (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(8) चर् कृ + ए । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(9) च कृ + ए । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(10) चक्रे । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि


1. In the last verse of what chapter of the गीता has √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम्?

2. Can you spot a “आट्”-आगम: in the verse?

3. Where has 6-1-17 लिट्यभ्यासस्योभयेषाम् been used in the verse?

4. What would have been the final form in this example if a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय: had been used?

5. Use some words from the verse to construct the following sentence in Sanskrit:
“Sabari performed worship of Sri Rama with devotion.”

6. Use some words from the verse to construct the following sentence in Sanskrit:
“Bending low, Sugriva said to Sri Rama, ‘What can I do for you?'”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-3-108 ह्रस्वस्य गुणः been used in the verse?

2. Can you spot a एकारादेश: in another word (besides चक्रे) in the verse?

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