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जगुः 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form जगुः 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.15.7

मैत्रेय उवाच
प्रशंसन्ति स्म तं विप्रा गन्धर्वप्रवरा जगुः।
मुमुचुः सुमनोधाराः सिद्धा नृत्यन्ति स्वःस्त्रियः ।। ४-१५-७ ।।

स्वःस्त्रियः अप्सरसो नृत्यन्ति स्म ।।

Gita Press translation – Maitreya went on : The Brāhmaṇas extolled Pṛthu, while the demigods known as Gandharvas were singing songs, the chief of them, the Siddhas were releasing showers of (Elysian) flowers, the heavenly damsels were dancing (all for joy at the advent of Pṛthu).”

जगुः is derived from the धातुः √गै (गै शब्दे १. १०६५)

In the धातु-पाठः, the √गै-धातुः has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √गै-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √गै-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “झि”।

(1) गा + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

Note: By 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति, the ending एच् (“ए”, “ओ”, “ऐ”, “औ”) letter of a धातु: in the धातु-पाठ: is replaced by a आकार:, but not in the context where a शकार: which is a इत् follows.
Since there is going to be no शित् (शकार: as a इत्) following, the धातु: “गै” becomes “गा”।

(2) गा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) गा + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झि” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) गा + उस् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “उस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) गा गा + उस् । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, while reduplication is yet to be done, a substitution (in this case लोप: of the आकार: by 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च) shall not be made in the place of a vowel on the basis of a vowel (in this case the उकार: of “उस्”) that is the cause for reduplication.
Note: This rule only temporarily stops the substitution until reduplication is done. Once reduplication is done, the substitution does takes place (in step 8 below.)

Therefore we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च

(6) जा गा + उस् । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(7) ज गा + उस् । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(8) ज ग् उस् । By 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च – The ending आकार: of an अङ्गम् takes लोप: when followed by a vowel-beginning आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: that has either:
(i) a “इट्”-आगम: or
(ii) a ककार: or ङकार: as an इत्।
Note: As per 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्, the “उस्”-प्रत्यय: is कित्। This allows 6-4-64 to apply.

(9) जगुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. In the last ten verses of Chapter Nine of the गीता where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः (used in step 7 of the example) been used?

2. Where else (besides in जगु:) has लिँट् been used in the verse?

3. Why doesn’t the ऋकार: in नृत्यन्ति take the गुणादेश: by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च?

4. Can you spot a शप्-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

5. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च (used in step 8 of the example) the काशिका says अचि इत्येव, ग्लायते। Please explain.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All the gopis, dancing around Sri Krishna, sang melodiously.” Use the अव्ययम् “परित:” for “around”, use द्वितीया विभक्ति: with “Sri Krishna”, use the प्रातिपदिकम् “नृत्यन्ती” (feminine) for “dancing” and use “सुस्वरम्” as an adverb for “melodiously.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “इयँङ्”-आदेश: in the form स्व:स्त्रिय: (प्रातिपदिकम् “स्व:स्त्री”, प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्)? Is there an alternate form?

2. In how many places has 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् been used in the verse?

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