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ददौ 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form ददौ 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.9.3

स एव हि ददौ भागं परोक्षमसुरान्प्रति ।
यजमानोऽवहद्भागं मातृस्नेहवशानुगः ।। ६-९-३ ।।

असुरेभ्यस्तु परोक्षं गुप्तं भागं ददौ । तदेवाह – देवान्यजमानोऽसावसुरान्प्रति भागमवहत्, केनाप्युपायेन प्रापयामास । यतो मातृस्नेहवशेनासुराननुगच्छति ।।

Gita Press translation “But he secretly offered a share (of the sacrificial oblations) to the demons (as well), as he (somehow) managed to convey the same to them even while pouring oblations into the sacred fire; for he had his sympathies with the Asuras because of the affection his mother (Racanā) bore to them.”

ददौ is derived from the धातुः √दा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः डुदाञ् दाने,धातु-पाठः #३. १०)

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √दा-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √दा-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √दा-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः। In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √दा will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √दा will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: is “तिप्”।

(1) दा + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) दा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) दा + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) दा + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) दा + औ । By 7-1-34 आत औ णलः, the “णल्”-प्रत्यय: is substituted by a औकार:, when it follows a धातु: that ends in a आकार:।

(6) दा दा + औ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, while reduplication is yet to be done, a substitution (in this case वृद्धि: by 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि) shall not be made in the place of a vowel on the basis of a vowel (in this case “औ”) that is the cause for reduplication.
Note: This rule only temporarily stops the substitution until reduplication is done. Once reduplication is done, the substitution does takes place (in step 8 below.)

Therefore we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि

(7) द दा + औ । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(8) ददौ । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि


1. In Chapter One of the गीता, can you spot a word wherein the णल्-प्रत्यय: has been used, but 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य has not applied?

2. Where has 3-4-100 इतश्च been used in the verse?

3. What would have been the final form in the example if a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय: had been used?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the छकारादेश: in the form अनुगच्छति in the commentary?

5. In the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, the वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 7-1-34 (used in step 5 of the example) says – आदन्ताद्धातोर्णल औकारादेशः स्यात्। Commenting on this, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – इह अङ्गस्येत्यनुवर्तते। धातोरिति तु फलितार्थकथनम्। What does this mean?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Lord Vishnu, in the form of Mohini, gave the nectar only to the gods.” Use the (compound) adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “मोहिनी-रूप-धारिन्” for “in the form of Mohini” and use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with “gods.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the “अदस्”-प्रातिपदिकम् in the commentary?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “क”-आदेश: in the form केन (सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “किम्”, पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम्)?

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January 2012