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चिच्छेद 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form चिच्छेद 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.54.28

तैस्ताडितः शरौघैस्तु चिच्छेद धनुरच्युतः ।
पुनरन्यदुपादत्त तदप्यच्छिनदव्ययः ।। १०-५४-२८ ।।

No commentary on this verse.

Gita Press translation “Struck with those volleys of arrows, however, Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the immortal Lord) rent his bow asunder. He snatched yet another and the imperishable Lord cleft that too.”

चिच्छेद is derived from the धातुः √छिद् (रुधादि-गणः, छिदिँर् द्वैधीकरणे, धातु-पाठः # ७. ३)

By the वार्तिकम् – इर इत्सञ्ज्ञा वाच्या, “इर्” of “छिदिँर्” gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा। The इकारः of “इर्” has a स्वरित-स्वर: here. Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √छिद्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √छिद्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √छिद् will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √छिद्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) छिद् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) छिद् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) छिद् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) छिद् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) छिद् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) छिद् छिद् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, while reduplication is yet to be done, a substitution (in this case गुण: of the इकार: by 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च) shall not be made in the place of a vowel on the basis of a vowel (in this case the अकार: of “णल्”) that is the cause for reduplication.
Note: This rule only temporarily stops the substitution until reduplication is done. Once reduplication is done, the substitution does takes place (in step 8 below.)

Therefore we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च

(7) छि छिद् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(8) छि छेद् + अ । By 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च, when a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases: i) The अङ्गम् ends in a पुक्-आगमः
or ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) छि तुँक् छेद । By 6-1-73 छे च, a short vowel (ह्रस्वः) gets the तुँक्-आगमः when a छकारः follows in संहितायाम्। By 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, an augment which is marked with the letter “क्” as an इत् attaches to the end of the term in the genitive case. In the present example, the term in the genitive case in the सूत्रम् is “ह्रस्वस्य” which is coming as अनुवृत्ति: from 6-1-71. Therefore the तुँक्-आगम: comes after the ह्रस्व: (इकार:)।

(10) छि त् छेद । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) छि च् छेद । तकारः gets चकार-आदेशः by 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः

(12) चिच्छेद । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः


1. Where is 6-1-73 छे च (used in step 9 of the example) used in the last five verses of Chapter Nine of the गीता?

2. Can you spot a “श्नम्”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

3. Where has 6-1-10 श्लौ been used in the verse?

4. 6-1-73 छे च is the first सूत्रम् in the अधिकार: of 6-1-72 संहितायाम्। Can you recall a अधिकार: which is a subset of (contained in) the अधिकार: of 6-1-72 संहितायाम्?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Krishna removed (cut) all of Arjuna’s doubts.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “संशय” for “doubt.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Rama made friendship with Sugriva.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “सख्य” for “friendship” and use (a लिँट् form of) √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) for “to make.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-1-25 अद्ड् डतरादिभ्यः पञ्चभ्यः been used in the verse?

2. Why didn’t 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः apply in the form “तद्” (सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “तद्”, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)?

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January 2012