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तस्थौ 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form तस्थौ 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.34.30

तमन्वधावद्गोविन्दो यत्र यत्र स धावति ।
जिहीर्षुस्तच्छिरोरत्नं तस्थौ रक्षन्स्त्रियो बलः ।। १०-३४-३० ।।

No commentary on this verse.

Gita Press translation “Intending to snatch the jewel on his head, Śrī Kṛṣṇa (the Protector of cows) chased him whithersoever he ran; while Bala stood guard over the women.”

तस्थौ is derived from the धातुः √स्था (भ्वादि-गणः, ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ, धातु-पाठः #१. १०७७)

The धातुः “ष्ठा” has an initial षकारः in the धातु-पाठः। By 6-1-64 धात्वादेः षः सः , there is the substitution of सकारः in the place of the initial षकारः of a धातुः। And as per the न्यायः “निमित्तापाये नैमित्तिकस्याप्यपाय:” (when a cause is gone, its effect is also gone) the ठकार-आदेशः for the थकारः, which has come in by 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः, because of the presence of the षकारः, will now be reverted to the थकारः since the cause for the ठकारादेश: no longer exists. So we now have √स्था।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √स्था has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √स्था, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √स्था can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: is “तिप्”।

(1) स्था + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) स्था + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) स्था + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) स्था + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) स्था + औ । By 7-1-34 आत औ णलः, the “णल्”-प्रत्यय: is substituted by a औकार:, when it follows a धातु: that ends in a आकार:।

(6) स्था स्था + औ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, while reduplication is yet to be done, a substitution (in this case वृद्धि: by 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि) shall not be made in the place of a vowel on the basis of a vowel (in this case “औ”) that is the cause for reduplication.
Note: This rule only temporarily stops the substitution until reduplication is done. Once reduplication is done, the substitution does takes place (in step 9 below.)

Therefore we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि

(7) था स्था + औ । By 7-4-61 शर्पूर्वाः खयः,  if a अभ्यास: begins with a शर्-खय् conjunct (a conjunct whose first letter belongs to the शर्-प्रत्याहार: and second letter belongs to the खय्-प्रत्याहार:) then the खय् letter is retained and all other consonants of the अभ्यास: take लोप:। See question 2.

(8) थ स्था + औ । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(9) थ स्थौ । By 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि

(10) तस्थौ । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः


1. In the last verse of which chapter of the गीता has √स्था (भ्वादि-गणः, ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ, धातु-पाठः #१. १०७७) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम्?

2. 7-4-61 शर्पूर्वाः खयः is a अपवाद: for which सूत्रम्?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-61 शर्पूर्वाः खयः, the काशिका says – शर्पूर्वाः इति किम्? पपाच। Please explain.

4. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम्, the काशिका says – खयः इति किम्? सस्नौ। Please explain.

5. Can you spot a “अट्”-आगम: in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Rama stayed in the forest for fourteen years.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “समा” for “year” and the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “चतुर्दशन्” for “fourteen.” Use द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् with both “समा” and “चतुर्दशन्”।

Easy questions:

1. Where has लँट् been used in the verse?

2. What would be an alternate form for स्त्रिय: (प्रातिपदिकम् “स्त्री”, द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the verse?

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