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नेदुः 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form नेदुः 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.33.5

ततो दुन्दुभयो नेदुर्निपेतुः पुष्पवृष्टयः ।
जगुर्गन्धर्वपतयः सस्त्रीकास्तद्यशोऽमलम् ।। १०-३३-५ ।।

तत्तस्य भगवतः श्रीकृष्णस्यामलं निर्मलं यशो जगुरिति ।।

Gita Press translation “Then sounded kettle-drums (beaten by heavenly beings), showers of flowers fell, and the chiefs of Gandharvas sang His immaculate glory in chorus with their spouses.”

नेदुः is derived from the धातुः √नद् (भ्वादि-गणः, णदँ अव्यक्ते शब्दे, धातु-पाठः #१. ५६)

In the धातु-पाठः, the धातुः “णदँ” has one इत् letter – the अकार: following the दकार:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus this धातु: is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, in कर्तरि प्रयोग: this धातु: will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So this धातु: can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The धातुः “णदँ” is णोपदेशः, since it has an initial णकारः in the धातु-पाठः। By 6-1-65 णो नः, there is the substitution of नकारः in the place of the initial णकारः of a धातुः। The अकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। So, now we have “नद्”।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “झि”।

(1) नद् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) नद् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) नद् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झि” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) नद् + उस् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “उस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) नद् नद् + उस् । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(6) न नद् + उस् । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.
See advanced question.

(7) नेद् + उस् । By 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि, the अकार: of a अङ्गम् takes एकार: as the substitute and simultaneously there is लोप: (elision) of the अभ्यास:, when all the following conditions are satisfied:
(i) the अकार: is preceded and followed by a single (non-conjunct) consonant
(ii) the अङ्गम् is followed by a लिँट् affix which is कित्
(iii) in place of the first letter of the अङ्गम् there is no आदेश: (substitution) that is based on the लिँट् affix.
See question 2.

Note : By 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्, a लिँट् affix which is not a पित् – does not have पकार: as a इत् – is considered to be a कित् (as having ककार: as a इत्), as long as there is no संयोग: (conjunction consonant) prior to the affix. Hence “उस्” is a कित् affix here. This allows 6-4-120 to apply.

(8) नेदुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. In the first fifteen verses of Chapter Ten of the गीता can you spot a तिङन्तं पदम् formed from a धातु: which is णोपदेश: (like “णदँ” used in this example)?

2. The वृत्ति: for 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि says – लिण्निमित्तादेशादिकं न भवति यदङ्गं तदवयवस्यासंयुक्तहल्मध्यस्थस्यात एत्वमभ्यासलोपश्च किति लिटि। What would have been the problem in this example if the वृत्ति: had said just आदेशादिकम् instead of लिण्निमित्तादेशादिकम्?

3. Where else (besides in नेदु:) has 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used in the verse?

4. Where has 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च been used in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When Sri Rama executed Ravana, showers of flowers fell from heaven.” Use √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) for “to execute.” Use the अव्यये यदा/तदा।

Advanced question:

1. In this example could have skipped step 6 and gone directly from step 5 to step 7?

Easy questions:

1. In how many places has 7-3-109 जसि च been used in the verse?

2. The word भगवत: used in the commentary is पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम् derived from the प्रातिपदिकम् “भगवत्”। Which other विभक्ति: (besides षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) would also give the form भगवत:?

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January 2012