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Daily Archives: January 14, 2012

दधार 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form दधार 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.17.3

विदुर उवाच
कस्माद्दधार गोरूपं धरित्री बहुरूपिणी ।
यां दुदोह पृथुस्तत्र को वत्सो दोहनं च किम् ।। ४-१७-३ ।।

दोहनं पात्रम् ।

Gita Press translation – Vidura said : “Wherefore did Earth who could take any number of forms, (particularly) assume the form of a cow that Pṛthu milked ? Who played the role of a calf for the time being and what served as the milk-pail?”

दधार is derived from the धातुः √धृ (भ्वादि-गणः, धृञ् धारणे, धातु-पाठः #१. १०४७)

Since the √धृ-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः, by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले the √धृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √धृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √धृ will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √धृ will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) धृ + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) धृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) धृ + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying. See easy question 2.

(4) धृ + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) धृ + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) धृ धृ + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, while reduplication is yet to be done, a substitution (in this case गुण: of the ऋकार: by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः) shall not be made in the place of a vowel on the basis of a vowel (in this case अकार:) that is the cause for reduplication.
Note: This rule only temporarily stops the substitution until reduplication is done. Once reduplication is done, the substitution does takes place (in step 9 below.)

Therefore we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(7) धर् धृ + अ । By 7-4-66 उरत्‌, a ऋवर्ण: of the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) takes the अकारादेश: when a प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(8) ध धृ + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(9) ध धर् + अ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(10) धधार । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः , a penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।

(11) दधार । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः


1. Where has 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः (used in step 10 of the example) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the last fifteen verses of Chapter Three of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – अतः किम्। तुतोद। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम्, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – उपधायाः किम्। गणयति। इह अतो लोपं बाधित्वा परत्वाद्वृद्धिः स्यात्। Please explain.

4. Where else (besides in दधार) has the “णल्”-प्रत्यय: been used in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In order to enter Lanka, Sri Hamuman assumed a minute form.” Use the अव्ययम् “प्रवेष्टुम्” for “in order to enter” and use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “सूक्ष्म” for “minute.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Ravana’s son was killed by Sri Hanuman.” Use (a passive लिँट् form of) √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) for “to kill.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ been used in the verse?

2. From which सूत्रम् (which we have studied) does the अनुवृत्ति: of “सार्वधातुके” come in to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌?

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