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ननृतु: 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form ननृतु: 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.4.2

नेदुर्दुन्दुभयो दिव्या गन्धर्वा ननृतुर्जगुः ।
ऋषयश्चारणाः सिद्धास्तुष्टुवुः पुरुषोत्तमम् ।। ८-४-२ ।।

No commentary on this verse.

Gita Press translation “Heavenly drums sounded; the Gandharvas (celestial musicians) danced and sang (songs of praise); while Ṛṣis, Cāraṇas (celestial bards) and Siddhas (a class of demigods endowed with mystic powers from their very birth) glorified the supreme Person.”

ननृतु: is derived from the धातुः √नृत् (दिवादि-गणः, नृतीँ गात्रविक्षेपे, धातु-पाठः #४. १०)

The ending ईकारः (which is an इत्) of “नृतीँ” has a उदात्त-स्वरः। Thus √नृत् is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, √नृत् in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √नृत् can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “झि”।

(1) नृत् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) नृत् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) नृत् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झि” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) नृत् + उस् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “उस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) नृत् नृत् + उस् । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(6) नर् त् नृत् + उस् । By 7-4-66 उरत्‌, a ऋवर्ण: of the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) takes the अकारादेश: when a प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(7) न नृत् + उस् । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

Note: “उस्” is a कित्-प्रत्यय: as per 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् – A लिँट् affix which is not a पित् – does not have पकार: as a इत् – shall be considered to be a कित् (as having ककार: as a इत्), as long as there is no संयोग: (conjunction consonant) prior to the affix. Hence 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च from applying.
See question 1.

(8) ननृतुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च is a later rule (परकार्यम्) in the अष्टाध्यायी compared to 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्। Then shouldn’t 7-3-86 take precedence over 1-2-5 and apply after step 7?

2. A धातुः is called णोपदेशः if it has an initial णकारः in the धातु-पाठः। Among those verbal roots that are found to begin with a नकार: at the time of usage in the language, eight verbal roots are नोपदेशा: – begin with a नकार: in the धातुपाठ:। (All others are णोपदेशा: – begin with a णकार: in the धातुपाठ:।) One of the eight is √नृत् (दिवादि-गणः, नृतीँ गात्रविक्षेपे, धातु-पाठः #४. १०) used in this example. Which are the other seven?

3. Can you spot a धातु: ending in a ऐकार: used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the verse?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the एकारादेश: in the form नेदु:?

5. Where has 7-4-61 शर्पूर्वाः खयः been used in the verse?

6. How would you say is Sanskrit?
“When Sri Rama returned after killing Ravana, all the citizens of Ayodhya danced with joy.” Use the अव्ययम् “हत्वा” for “after killing (having killed)”, the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “पौर” for “citizen” and use (a लिँट् form of) √वृत् (वृतुँ वर्तने १. ८६२) with the उपसर्ग: “नि” for “to return.” Use the अव्यये यदा/तदा।

Easy questions:

1. Where has 6-1-114 हशि च been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for पुरुषोत्तम + अम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) = पुरुषोत्तमम्? (Why doesn’t 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः apply?)

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