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Daily Archives: January 26, 2012

पप्रच्छ 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form पप्रच्छ 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.18.40

विसृज्य पुत्रं पप्रच्छ वत्स कस्माद्धि रोदिषि ।
केन वा तेऽपकृतमित्युक्तः स न्यवेदयत् ।। १-१८-४० ।।

तं सर्पं विसृज्यकेनापकारः कृतः ।।

Gita Press translation – (Sage Śamīka) throwing off (the dead serpent), enquired: “Child, wherefore do you weep? Who has wronged you?” Thus asked, the boy told him (all that had happened).

पप्रच्छ is derived from the धातुः √प्रच्छ् (तुदादि-गणः, प्रच्छँ ज्ञीप्सायाम्, धातु-पाठः # ६. १४९)

In the धातु-पाठः, the ending अकार: (which is a इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्) of “प्रच्छँ” has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus √प्रच्छ् is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, in कर्तरि प्रयोग: √प्रच्छ् takes the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default.

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is तिप्।

(1) प्रच्छ् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) प्रच्छ् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) प्रच्छ् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) प्रच्छ् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) प्रच्छ् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
See question 2.

(6) प्रच्छ् प्रच्छ् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(7) प् र् अ च्छ् प्रच्छ् + अ = प् ऋ अ च्छ् प्रच्छ् + अ । By 6-1-17 लिट्यभ्यासस्योभयेषाम्, when a लिँट् affix follows, सम्प्रसारणम् (ref. 1-1-45 इग्यणः सम्प्रसारणम्) is done in the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) of the verbal roots (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८ etc.) referred to in 6-1-15 as well as in that of the verbal roots (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९. ७१ etc.) referred to in 6-1-16.

(8) पृच्छ् प्रच्छ् + अ । By 6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च, when a सम्प्रसारणम् is followed by a अच् (vowel), there is a single replacement (in place of both the सम्प्रसारणम् and the following अच्) of the prior letter (the सम्प्रसारणम्)।

(9) पर् च्छ् प्रच्छ् + अ । By 7-4-66 उरत्‌, a ऋवर्ण: of the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) takes the अकारादेश: when a प्रत्यय: follows. As per 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(10) पप्रच्छ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.


1. Where has √प्रच्छ् (तुदादि-गणः, प्रच्छँ ज्ञीप्सायाम्, धातु-पाठः # ६. १४९) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् for the first time in the गीता?

2. Why doesn’t the रेफ: in “प्रच्छ्” take सम्प्रसारणम् (by 6-1-16 ग्रहिज्यावयिव्यधिवष्टिविचतिवृश्चतिपृच्छतिभृज्जतीनां ङिति च) in this example? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

3. Can you spot a “णिच्”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

4. Can you recall a अपवाद-सूत्रम् (exception rule) to 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः (used in step 7)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Krishna asked Arjuna – ‘Why do you grieve over those who should not be grieved for?'” Use √शुच् (शुचँ शोके १. २१०) with the उपसर्ग: “अनु” for “to grieve over” and use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “अशोच्य” for “one who should not be grieved for.” Use the अव्ययम् “कस्मात्” for “why” and the अव्ययम् “इति” as an end-quote.

Advanced question:

1. Rules prescribing (and prohibiting) a “इट्”-आगम: are presented by पाणिनि: in 7-2 (second quarter of the seventh chapter) of the अष्टाध्यायी। The topic goes from 7-2-8 to 7-2-78. The rules from 7-2-8 to 7-2-34 are all prohibition rules. Can you try to find a सूत्रम् in the remaining section (from 7-2-35 to 7-2-78) which is responsible for the “इट्”-आगम: in रोदिषि? (We have not studied this सूत्रम् in the class.) Hint: पाणिनि: specifically mentions the धातु: “रुद्” in this सूत्रम्।

Easy questions:

1. Where has 6-1-69 एङ्ह्रस्वात्‌ सम्बुद्धेः been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the धकारादेश: in कस्माद्धि?

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