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चक्रिरे 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form चक्रिरे 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.16.5

व्यभिचारं मुनिर्ज्ञात्वा पत्न्याः प्रकुपितोऽब्रवीत् ।
घ्नतैनां पुत्रकाः पापामित्युक्तास्ते न चक्रिरे ।। ९-१६-५ ।।

व्यभिचारं मानसं ज्ञात्वा ।।

Gita Press translation “Enraged to know (through Yoga) the (mental) lapse of his wife, the sage exclaimed, “My sons! do away with this sinful woman.” Though enjoined thus, they did not carry out his command.”

चक्रिरे is derived from the धातुः √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०)

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √कृ-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः, by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले the √कृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √कृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √कृ will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √कृ will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “झ”।

(1) कृ + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) कृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कृ + झ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झ” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झ” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) कृ + इरेच् । By 3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच्, when they come in place of लिँट्, the affixes “त” and “झ” take the substitutions “एश्” and “इरेच्” respectively.
As per 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्, 1-1-55 अनेकाल् शित् सर्वस्य, “इरेच्” comes as a substitute for “झ”।

(5) कृ + इरे । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) कृ कृ + इरे । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य, when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, while reduplication is yet to be done, a substitution (in this case रेफादेश: by 6-1-77 इको यणचि) shall not be made in the place of a vowel on the basis of a vowel (in this case इकार: of “इरे”) that is the cause for reduplication.
Note: This rule only temporarily stops the substitution until reduplication is done. Once reduplication is done, the substitution does takes place (in step 10 below.)

Therefore we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 6-1-77 इको यणचि

(7) कर् कृ + इरे । By 7-4-66 उरत्‌, a ऋवर्ण: of the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) takes the अकारादेश: when a प्रत्यय: follows.
By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.

(8) चर् कृ + इरे । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(9) च कृ + इरे । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(10) चक्रिरे । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि


1. In the गीता where has √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०) been used with a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय: in the विवक्षा of लँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्?

2. What would have been the final form in this example if a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय: had been used?

3. Which सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् has been used in the from एनाम् (स्त्रीलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)?
i. “इदम्”
ii. “एतद्”
iii. Either “इदम्” or “एतद्”
iv. Neither “इदम्” nor “एतद्”

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “ईट्”-आगम: in अब्रवीत्?

5. Where has 3-4-85 लोटो लङ्वत्‌ been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Rama performed the final rites of the vulture Jatayu.” Use the (compound) feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “अन्त्यक्रिया” for “final rite”, use the masculine/neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “गृध्र” for “vulture” and “जटायुस्” for “Jatayu.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a “आट्”-आगम: in the verse?

2. Where has 7-1-17 जसः शी been used in the verse?

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