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चेलुः 3Ap-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form चेलुः 3Ap-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.17.4

सहाचला भुवश्चेलुर्दिशः सर्वाः प्रजज्वलुः ।
सोल्काश्चाशनयः पेतुः केतवश्चार्तिहेतवः ।। ३-१७-४ ।।

अचलैः सहिता भुवः प्रदेशाः । केतवश्चोदयं चक्रुरिति शेषः ।।

Gita Press translation “Parts of the globe shook along with the mountains; all the quarters appeared to be on fire, meteors and thunderbolts descended on earth and comets portending grief appeared.”

चेलुः is derived from the धातुः √चल् (भ्वादि-गणः, चलँ कम्पने, धातु-पाठः #१. ९६६)

In the धातु-पाठः, the धातुः “चलँ” has one इत् letter – the अकार: following the लकार:। This इत् letter has a उदात्त-स्वर:। Thus √चल् is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, √चल् in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √चल् can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “झि”।

(1) चल् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट् , the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) चल् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) चल् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “झि” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) चल् + उस् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “उस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(5) चल् चल् + उस् । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(6) च चल् + उस् । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(7) चेल् + उस् । By 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि, the अकार: of a अङ्गम् takes एकार: as the substitute and simultaneously there is लोप: (elision) of the अभ्यास:, when all the following conditions are satisfied:
(i) the अकार: is preceded and followed by a single (non-conjunct) consonant
(ii) the अङ्गम् is followed by a लिँट् affix which is कित्
(iii) in place of the first letter of the अङ्गम् there is no आदेश: (substitution) that is based on the लिँट् affix.

Note : By 1-2-5 असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्, a लिँट् affix which is not a पित् – does not have पकार: as a इत् – shall be considered to be a कित् (as having ककार: as a इत्), as long as there is no संयोग: (conjunction consonant) prior to the affix. Hence, “उस्” is a कित्-प्रत्यय: here. This allows 6-4-120 to apply.

(8) चेलुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. In how many places has 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used in the गीता?
i. Only once in Chapter One
ii. Twice
iii. More than five times
iv. Never

2. Where else (besides in चेलु:) has 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used in the verse?

3. Why doesn’t 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि apply in the form जज्वलु: used in the verse? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – किति किम्। ननाद। Please explain.

5. Where has लिँट् been used in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Struck by Sri Rama’s arrows, all the demons fell on the ground.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “हत” for “struck.” Use a verb from the verse for “fell.”

Easy questions:

1. In how many places has 7-3-109 जसि च been used in the verse?

2. The word दिश: used in the commentary is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “दिश्”। What would be the form in प्रथमा-एकवचनम्?
i. दिश्
ii. दिट्/दिड्
iii. दिक्/दिग्
iv. दिश:

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