Home » 2012 » January » 03

Daily Archives: January 3, 2012

विव्याध 3As-लिँट्

Today we will look at the form विव्याध 3As-लिँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.54.26

यावन्न मे हतो बाणैः शयीथा मुञ्च दारिकाम् ।
स्मयन्कृष्णो धनुश्छित्त्वा षड्भिर्विव्याध रुक्मिणम् ।। १०-५४-२६ ।।

No commentary on this verse.

Gita Press translation – “Leave my sister before you bite the dust when struck with my arrows.” Smilingly tearing his bow Śrī Kṛṣṇa pierced Rukmī with six arrows.

विव्याध is derived from the धातुः √व्यध् (दिवादि-गणः, व्यधँ ताडने, धातु-पाठः # ४. ७८)

The ending अकारः (which is an इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्) of “व्यधँ” has a उदात्त-स्वरः। Thus the √व्यध्-धातुः is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √व्यध्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √व्यध्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लिँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, hence the प्रत्ययः is “तिप्”।

(1) व्यध् + लिँट् । By 3-2-115 परोक्षे लिँट्, the affix लिँट् (Perfect Tense) comes after a verbal root in the sense of the past not of today, provided that the action is unperceived by the narrator.

(2) व्यध् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) व्यध् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। By 3-4-115 लिट् च, a तिङ्-प्रत्यय: which comes in place of लिँट् gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore “तिप्” gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा। This prevents 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ (which requires a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: to follow) from applying.

(4) व्यध् + णल् । By 3-4-82 परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः, when they come in place of लिँट्, the nine परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: – “तिप्”, “तस्”, “झि”, “सिप्”, “थस्”, “थ”, “मिप्”, “वस्” and “मस्” – are substituted by “णल्”, “अतुस्”, “उस्”, “थल्”, “अथुस्”, “अ”, “णल्”, “व” and “म” respectively.

(5) व्यध् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) व्यध् व्यध् + अ । By 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य , when लिँट् follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

Note: As per 1-1-59 द्विर्वचनेऽचि, while reduplication is yet to be done, a substitution (in this case वृद्धि: of the अकार: by 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः) shall not be made in the place of a vowel on the basis of a vowel (in this case the अकार: of “णल्”) that is the cause for reduplication.
Note: This rule only temporarily stops the substitution until reduplication is done. Once reduplication is done, the substitution does takes place (in step 9 below.)

Therefore we apply 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य before applying 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः

(7) व् इ अध् व्यध् + अ । By 6-1-17 लिट्यभ्यासस्योभयेषाम्, when a लिँट् affix follows, सम्प्रसारणम् (ref. 1-1-45 इग्यणः सम्प्रसारणम्) is done in the अभ्यास: (reduplicate) of the verbal roots (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८ etc.) referred to in 6-1-15 वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति as well as in that of the verbal roots (ग्रहँ उपादाने ९. ७१ etc.) referred to in 6-1-16 ग्रहिज्यावयिव्यधिवष्टिविचतिवृश्चतिपृच्छतिभृज्जतीनां ङिति च
See question 2.

Note: As per the परिभाषा “सम्प्रसारणं तदाश्रितं च कार्यं बलवत्”, 6-1-17 (which is an earlier rule in the अष्टाध्यायी compared to 7-4-60) applies before 7-4-60. Note: If 7-4-60 had applied first, the यकार: (in the अभ्यास:) would have taken लोप: and we would have ended up with an undesirable form.
परिभाषा – “सम्प्रसारणं तदाश्रितं च कार्यं बलवत्” – A सम्प्रसारणम् (ref. 1-1-45) operation, as well as an operation (6-1-108) which is dependent on it, possesses greater force (takes precedence over other operations which are simultaneously applicable.)

(8) व् इ ध् व्यध् + अ । By 6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च – When a सम्प्रसारणम् is followed by a अच् (vowel), there is a single replacement (in place of both the सम्प्रसारणम् and the following अच्) of the prior letter (the सम्प्रसारणम्)।

(9) वि व्यध् + अ । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(10) विव्याध । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः , a penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।


1. The सूत्रम् 6-1-17 लिट्यभ्यासस्योभयेषाम् (used in step 7 of the example) is used in only one word (which occurs many times) in the गीता। Which word is it?

2. Why didn’t the वकार: (which is a यण् letter) in the अभ्यास: take सम्प्रसारणम् in step 7?

3. Can you spot a “सीयुट्”-आगम: in the verse?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “नुँम्”-आगम: in the form मुञ्च?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Rama pierced the demons with sharp arrows.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “राक्षस” for “demon” and the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “निशित” for “sharp.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sita said to Ravana – ‘How indeed doesn’t shame tear up your heart?'” Use the combination of अव्यये “कथम् + नु = कथं नु” for “how indeed”, use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “लज्जा” for “shame”, use a causative form of √दॄ (दॄ विदारणे ९. २६) with the उपसर्ग: “वि” for “to tear up” and use (a लिँट् form of) √वच् (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८) for “to say.” Use the अव्ययम् “इति” as an end-quote.

Easy questions:

1. Where has 8-4-45 यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा been used in the verse?

2. Which प्रातिपदिकम् used in the verse has the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा?

Recent Posts

January 2012