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तनुते 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form तनुते 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb3.29.43

नभो ददाति श्वसतां पदं यन्नियमाददः ।
लोकं स्वदेहं तनुते महान्सप्तभिरावृतम् ।। ३-२९-४३ ।।

Gita Press translation “Subject to His control the yonder sky allows room to living beings and Mahat-tattva (the principle of cosmic intelligence) expands its own (sprout-like) form into this (vast) universe enveloped by seven sheaths (in the shape of earth, water, fire, air, ether, the ego and Prakṛti).”

तनुते is derived from the धातुः √तन् (तनादि-गणः, तनुँ विस्तारे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १)

The ending उकार: (which is an इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्) of “तनुँ” has स्वरित-स्वरः। As per 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √तन्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √तन्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः। In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √तन् will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √तन्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “त”।

(1) तन् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) तन् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) तन् + त । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “त” as the substitute for the लकारः। “त” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) तन् + ते । By 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे, the टि-भागः of a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has टकार: as a इत्), gets एकारः as the replacement.

(5) तन् + उ + ते । By 3-1-79 तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः signifying the agent follows, the affix “उ” is placed after the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) and also after a verbal root belonging to the तनादि-गणः। “उ” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्द्धधातुकं शेषः
Note: By 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the “ते”-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत् (behaves like having a ङकारः as an इत्)। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेशः for the ending उकार: (of the अङ्गम् “तनु”) which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(6) तनुते।


1. In which chapter of the गीता has 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे (used in step 4 of the example) been used in the last verse?

2. Can you spot a “श्लु” elision in the verse?

3. The word महान् used in the verse is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् “महत्”। In which सूत्रम् (which we have studied) does पाणिनि: specifically mention the प्रातिपदिकम् “महत्”?

4. Why didn’t 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् apply in the form सप्तभि:?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In which chapters of the आष्टाध्यायी does पाणिनि: prescribe affixes?” Use the masculine noun “प्रत्यय” for “affix” and use √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके धातु-पाठः #३. ११) with the उपसर्ग: “वि” for “to prescribe.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I (masculine) am married.” Paraphrase this to “I am one who has a wife.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “कलत्रवत्” for “one who has a wife.” Note: “कलत्रवत्” ends in the “वतुँप्”-प्रत्यय:।

Easy questions:

1. In the verse, can you spot two प्रातिपदिके which end in a सकार:?

2. Where has 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः been used in the verse?

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