Home » 2011 » November » 07

Daily Archives: November 7, 2011

कुर्वन्ति 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form कुर्वन्ति 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb1.3.39

अथेह धन्या भगवन्त इत्थं यद्वासुदेवेऽखिललोकनाथे ।
कुर्वन्ति सर्वात्मकमात्मभावं न यत्र भूयः परिवर्त उग्रः ।। १-३-३९ ।।

Gita Press translation “Now you blessed ones are lucky indeed, since you in this life and in this world (which is full of impediments and obstacles) thus cultivate that undivided love to Bhagavān Vāsudeva (Śrī Kṛṣṇa), the Lord of the entire universe, by virtue of which one never falls again into the terrible vortex of birth and death.”

कुर्वन्ति is derived from the धातुः √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०)

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since ‘डुकृञ्’ has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः, by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले this verbal root takes आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – it takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √कृ takes either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √कृ is उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्।

(1) कृ + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) कृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कृ + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) कृ + उ + झि । By 3-1-79 तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः signifying the agent follows, the affix “उ” is placed after the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) and also after a verbal root belonging to the तनादि-गणः। “उ” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः

(5) कर् + उ + झि । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a “रँ” (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.
Note: By 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the “झि”-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत् (behaves like having a ङकारः as an इत्)। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेशः for the ending उकार: (of the अङ्गम् “करु”) which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(6) कुर् + उ + झि । By 6-4-110 अत उत्‌ सार्वधातुके, when √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) ends in the “उ”-प्रत्यय: and is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, then there is a substitution of उकारः in place of the अकारः (which is a result of गुणादेशः) of √कृ। See question 2.

(7) कुर् + उ + अन्ति । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः, “अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(8) कुर्वन्ति । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

Note: The दीर्घादेशः (elongation) of the उपधा (उकारः) of the अङ्गम् “कुर्” that would have been done by 8-2-77 हलि च is prevented by 8-2-79 न भकुर्छुराम् which states –
The दीर्घादेश: (prescribed by 8-2-77) for the penultimate (उपधा) इक् letter of an अङ्गम् does not take place in the following three cases:
i. The अङ्गम् has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा or
ii. The अङ्गम् is ‘कुर्’ or
iii. The अङ्गम् is ‘छुर्’।


1. Where has कुर्वन्ति been used in the गीता?

2. After step 6, why didn’t the उकार: of the अङ्गम् “कुर्” take the गुणादेश: by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च?

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the “नुँम्”-आगम: in the form भगवन्त: (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्, प्रातिपदिकम् “भगवत्”)? Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् “भगवत्” ends in the “वतुँप्”-प्रत्यय:।

4. What would have been the final form in this example if a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय: had been used?

5. Match the following अव्ययानि with their meanings:
a) अथ
b) इत्थम्
c) यत्
d) भूय:

i. thus
ii. since
iii. again
iv. now

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“(You) Obey my order.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “शासन” for “order” and use √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०) for “to obey.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् has been used to get अथ + इह = अथेह?

2. Where has 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् been used in the verse?

Recent Posts

November 2011