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उपयुञ्जीत 3Ap-लिँङ्

Today we will look at the form उपयुञ्जीत 3As-विधिलिँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb7.13.8

न शिष्याननुबध्नीत ग्रन्थान्नैवाभ्यसेद्बहून् ।
न व्याख्यामुपयुञ्जीत नारम्भानारभेत्क्वचित् ।। ७-१३-८ ।।

Gita Press translation “He should not attach (a number of) disciples of himself nor should he study many a book (that may divert his mind from the object of pursuit, viz., spiritual enlightenment). He should neither take to discoursing nor should he engage in undertakings (such as the construction of a monastery and so on) on any account.”

युञ्जीत is derived from the धातुः √युज् (रुधादि-गणः, युजिँर् योगे, धातु-पाठः # ७. ७)

By the वार्तिकम् – इर इत्सञ्ज्ञा वाच्या, “इर्” of “युजिँर्” gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा । The इकारः of “इर्” has a स्वरित-स्वर: here. Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √युज्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √युज्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √युज् will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √युज्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse it has taken a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is विधिलिँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “त”।

(1) युज् + लिँङ् । By 3-3-161 विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्, the affix लिङ् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of command, direction, invitation, request, inquiry and entreaty.

(2) युज् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) युज् + त । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “त” as the substitute for the लकारः। “त” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) युज् + सीयुट् त । By 3-4-102 लिङस्सीयुट् , the affixes of लिँङ् get सीयुट् as the augment. As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the सीयुट्-आगमः joins at the beginning of the प्रत्यय:।

(5) युज् + सीय् त । The उकार: in सीयुट् is for pronunciation only (उच्चारणार्थम्)। The टकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) यु श्नम् ज् + सीय् त । By 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्, the श्नम्-प्रत्ययः is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the रुधादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः that is used signifying the agent. श्नम् is a मित्। Hence as per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, it is placed after the last vowel (उकार:) of the अङ्गम् “युज्”।
This सूत्रम् is a अपवादः (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌
Note: The purpose of the शकार: (which is an इत् by 1-3-8) in “श्नम्” is in order for पाणिनि: to be able to refer specifically to this प्रत्यय: in rules such as 6-4-23, 6-4-111 etc. It is not for getting the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा (by 3-4-113.) Since this प्रत्यय: does not follow the अङ्गम् (it is placed inside the अङ्गम् as per 1-1-47), it cannot act on the अङ्गम् and hence no purpose would be served by assigning the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) युनज् + सीय् त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) युन्ज् + सीय् त । By 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः, the अकारः of “श्न” and of the verbal root √अस् (असँ भुवि २. ६०) is elided when followed by सार्वाधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्।
Note: “श्न” refers to the “श्नम्”-प्रत्यय: (ref. 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्)।
Note: By 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the “सीय् त”-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत् (behaves like having a ङकारः as an इत्)। This allows 6-4-111 to apply.

(9) युन्ज् + ई य् त । By 7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्‍त्‍यस्‍य, the सकारः of a सार्वधातुक-लिङ् affix is elided, provided it is not the final letter of the affix.

(10) युन्ज् + ईत । By 6-1-66 लोपो व्‍योर्वलि , a वकारः or a यकारः is elided when it is followed by a letter of the वल्-प्रत्याहारः।

(11) युंजीत । By 8-3-24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि, the नकारः (which is not at the end of the पदम्) gets अनुस्वारः as replacement since a झल् letter follows.

(12) युञ्जीत । By 8-4-58 अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः, when a यय् letter follows, अनुस्वारः gets the सवर्णः of the यय् letter as its replacement.

“उप” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
उप + युञ्जीत = उपयुञ्जीत।


1. Where has युञ्जीत been used in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the form अनुबध्नीत used in this verse, the commentator says – तङार्ष:। Please explain.

3. Commenting on the form आरभेत् used in this verse, the commentator says – तङभाव आर्ष:। Please explain.

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should not use an incomplete word.” Use the neuter (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “अपद” for “incomplete word” and use √युज् (रुधादि-गणः, युजिँर् योगे, धातु-पाठः # ७. ७) with the उपसर्ग: “प्र” for “to use.”

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Who disclosed the error in my sentence?” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “दोष” for “error” and use √काश् (काशृँ दीप्तौ १. ७३४) in the causative with the उपसर्ग: “प्र” for “to disclose.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The hurricane made all these trees fall.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “प्रभञ्जन” for “hurricane” and use √पत् (पतॢँ गतौ १. ९७९) in the causative for “to cause to fall.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for अभ्यसेत् + बहून् = अभ्यसेद्बहून्?

2. Can you spot four places in the verse where 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि has been used?

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