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सन्दीपयत 2AS-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form सन्दीपयत 2Ap-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb7.2.12

यत्र यत्र द्विजा गावो वेदा वर्णाश्रमाः क्रियाः।
तं तं जनपदं यात सन्दीपयत वृश्चत ।। ७-२-१२ ।।

Translation “Repair to each such territory where there are Brāhmaṇas (lit., the twice-born), cows, the Vedas, the (four) Varṇas (grades of society) and (four) Āśramas (stages in life) and rituals. Set fire to them and cut them (their trees etc.) to pieces.”

दीपयत is a causative form derived from the धातुः √दीप् (दीपीँ दीप्तौ ४. ४५)

The ending ईकार: of “दीपीँ” is an इत् as per 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

दीप् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed. “णिच्” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः
= दीप् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= दीपि

“दीपि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

As per 1-3-74 णिचश्च, the verbal roots that end in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः shall take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer these verbal roots shall take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root that ends in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, it will be उभयपदी। Here it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः।

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः (हेतुमति), मध्यम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “थ”।

(1) दीपि + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च, the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) दीपि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) दीपि + थ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “थ” as the substitute for the लकारः। “थ” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) दीपि + त । By 3-4-101 तस्थस्थमिपां तांतंतामः, the तिङ्-प्रत्ययाः “तस्”, “थस्”, “थ” and “मिप्” of a लकारः which is a ङित्, are replaced by “ताम्”, “तम्”, “त” and “अम्” respectively.

(5) दीपि + शप् + त । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(6) दीपि + अ + त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) दीपे + अ + त । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(8) दीपयत । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

“सम्” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
सम् + दीपयत = संदीपयत । 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः
= सन्दीपयत/संदीपयत । 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य


1. Where has the “णिच्”-प्रत्यय: been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the last five verses of Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form वृश्चत?

3. Can you spot a place in the verse where the “शप्”-प्रत्यय: has taken the लुक् elision?

4. Where has 7-1-90 गोतो णित्‌ been used in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This house was set on fire by the terrorists.” Use (in the masculine) the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “आततायिन्” for “terrorist” and use (in the passive) √दीप् (दीपीँ दीप्तौ ४. ४५) in the causative for “to set on fire.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Many students are confused by this सूत्रम्।” Use (in the passive) √मुह् (मुहँ वैचित्त्ये ४. ९५) in the causative for “to confuse.”

Easy questions:

1. Consider the form क्रिया: (used in the verse.) It is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “क्रिया”। Steps are as follows:
क्रिया + जस् | By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…।
= क्रिया + अस् | By 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकार: of “जस्” from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
= क्रियास् | By ?
= क्रिया: | Applying रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः, 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः।

Which सूत्रम् is used in the second last step – 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः or 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः?

2. Can you spot two places in the verse where 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् has been used?

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