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कथय 2As-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form कथय 2As-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.58.19

का त्वं कस्यासि सुश्रोणि कुतोऽसि किं चिकीर्षसि ।
मन्ये त्वां पतिमिच्छन्तीं सर्वं कथय शोभने ।। १०-५८-१९ ।।

Gita Press translation “Who are you and whose daughter may you be, O fair damsel? Where do you come from and what do you mean to do? I infer you to be in quest of a (suitable) match. (Pray), relate everything (to me), O good maiden!”

कथय is derived from the धातुः √कथ (चुरादि-गणः, कथ वाक्यप्रबन्धे (वाक्यप्रबन्धने), धातु-पाठः # १०. ३८९)

The ending अकारः of “कथ” is not a अनुनासिक: and hence does not get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्

By 3-1-25 सत्यापपाशरूपवीणातूलश्लोकसेनालोमत्वचवर्मवर्णचूर्णचुरादिभ्यो णिच् , the affix णिच् is used after these words – “सत्य” ‘truth’ (which then takes the form of “सत्याप्” as exhibited in the सूत्रम्), “पाश” ‘fetter’, “रूप” ‘form’, “वीणा” ‘lute’, “तूल” ‘cotton’, “श्लोक” ‘celebration’, “सेना” ‘army’, “लोमन्” ‘hair of the body’, “त्वच” ‘skin’, “वर्मन्” ‘mail’, “वर्ण” ‘color’, “चूर्ण” ‘powder’ and the verbal roots belonging to the चुरादि-गणः

कथ + णिच् । By 3-1-25. “णिच्” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः
= कथ् + णिच् । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः, when an आर्धधातुकम् affix follows, the अकारः at the end of a अङ्गम् is elided if the अङ्गम् ends in a अकार: at the time when the आर्धधातुकम् affix is prescribed. Note: As per 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः, the णिच्-प्रत्यय: would do a वृद्धि: substitution in place of the अकार: of the अङ्गम् “कथ्”। But this does not happen because as per 1-1-57 अचः परस्मिन् पूर्वविधौ, the लोप: done by 6-4-48 has स्थानिवद्-भाव: (it behaves like the item it replaced – अकार:) when it comes to an operation (वृद्धि:) that would be performed to the left of it. Hence as far as 7-2-116 is concerned, the उपधा of the अङ्गम् is the थकार: and hence it cannot apply.
= कथ् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= कथि।

“कथि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

As per 1-3-74 णिचश्च, the verbal roots that end in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः shall take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer these verbal roots shall take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root that ends in the णिच्-प्रत्ययः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, it will be उभयपदी। Here it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः।

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “सिप्”।

(1) कथि + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च, the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) कथि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कथि + सिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “सिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “सिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) कथि + सि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) कथि + हि । By 3-4-87 सेर्ह्यपिच्च, “सि” of लोँट् is substituted by “हि” and it is an अपित्।

(6) कथि + शप् + हि । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(7) कथि + अ + हि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) कथे + अ + हि । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(9) कथय + हि । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(10) कथय । By 6-4-105 अतो हेः, there is an elision of the affix “हि” when it follows an अङ्गम् ending in a अकार:।


1. Where has कथय been used in the गीता?

2. What is the special feature of all the verbal roots in the section beginning with √कथ (चुरादि-गणः, कथ वाक्यप्रबन्धे (वाक्यप्रबन्धने), धातु-पाठः # १०. ३८९) and going up to the end of the चुरादि-गण:?

3. Where has 7-4-50 तासस्त्योर्लोपः been used in the verse?

4. Can you spot a श्यन्-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I think you’re a brave man.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “वीर” for “brave” and use a verb from the verse for “I think.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Tell me everything that happened yesterday in the temple.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “वृत्त” for “happened”, use the अव्ययम् “श्वस्” for “yesterday” and use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with “me” (प्रातिपदिकम् “अस्मद्”)। Use some words from the verse for “tell” and “everything.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-3-106 सम्बुद्धौ च been used in the verse?

2. Why didn’t the सूत्रम् 7-2-103 किमः कः apply in the form किम् (सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “किम्”, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)?

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