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अमी mNp

Today we will look at the form अमी-mNp from श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता Bg11-28.

यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः समुद्रमेवाभिमुखा द्रवन्ति |
तथा तवामी नरलोकवीरा विशन्ति वक्त्राण्यभिविज्वलन्ति || ११-२८||

Gita Press translation “As the myriad streams of rivers rush towards the sea alone, so do those warriors of the mortal world enter Your flaming mouths.”

‘अदस्’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् and सर्वनाम-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि । The विवक्षा here is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अदस्’

(1) अदस् + जस् ।

(2) अद अ + जस् । By 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः, अदस् gets the अकारादेशः । As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending सकार: gets replaced.

(3) अद + जस् । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे, the अकारः at the end of “अद” and the following अकारादेशः is replaced by अकारः (पररूपम्) as एकादेशः ।

(4) अद + शी । By 7-1-17 जसः शी, following a pronoun ending in short अ the nominative plural ending जस् is replaced by शी।

(5) अद + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) अदे । गुणादेशः by 6-1-87 आद्गुणः

(7) अमी । By 8-2-81 एत ईद्बहुवचने, in the plural, the ईकार: is substituted in place of the एकार: that follows the दकार: of “अदस्” and the दकार: gets substituted by a मकार:।

Questions:

1. The words यथा and तथा are formed using the तद्धित-प्रत्यय: “थाल्” using the सूत्रम् 5-3-23 प्रकारवचने थाल्। By which सूत्रम् do they get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

2. Why didn’t 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः apply (instead of 6-1-87 आद्गुणः) in step 6?

3. What would have been the final form in this example if the gender had been neuter?

4. In which verse of the गीता has the अदस्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used twice?

5. पाणिनि: defines the प्रगृह्य-सञ्ज्ञा in the अष्टाध्यायी by the rules 1-1-11 to 1-1-19. Can you find a सूत्रम् there by which the ending ईकार: of “अमी” gets the प्रगृह्य-सञ्ज्ञा?

6. Can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the शतृँ-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In the morning, all the cows enter the forest, with the cowherds.” Use a verb from the verse for “enter” and use the अव्ययम् “प्रातर्” for “in the morning.”

8. The अमरकोश: gives two meanings for the word “वेग:”। Which one has been used in this verse?
वेगः प्रवाहजवयोरपि ॥३-३-२०॥

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a नुँट्-आगम: in the verse?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् been used? How about 6-1-113 अतो रोरप्लुतादप्लुते?

3. Derive the form वक्त्राणि (द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) from the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “वक्त्र” (declined like ज्ञान/वन-शब्द:)। Use 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि for the णकारादेश:।

पुम्भिः mIp

Today we will look at the form पुम्भिः-mIp from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् ।

माहेश्वरे प्रवृत्ते तु यज्ञे पुम्भिः सुदुर्लभे |
वरांस्ते लब्धवान्पुत्रः साक्षात् पशुपतेरिह || ७-२५-९||

“And when the sacrifice intended to propitiate Lord Maheśwara, which is exceedingly difficult for the mortals to accomplish, commenced, your son received boons personally from Lord Śiva (the ruler of embodied souls in bondage, who are no better than beasts) here (on this very ground).”

The प्रातिपदिकम् “पुम्स्” is formed using the उणादि-प्रत्यय: “डुम्सुँन्”।

‘पुम्स्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। The विवक्षा here is तृतीया-बहुवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पुम्स्’

(1) पुम्स् + भिस् । अङ्गम् has पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने

(2) पुम् + भिस् । By 8-2-23 संयोगान्तस्य लोपः, the संयोगान्तपदम् “पुम्स्” takes लोपः। As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (सकार:) of the पदम् will take लोपः।

(3) पुम्भिः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः
See question 1.

Questions:

1. Which two rules should be applied after step 3? (They will give an alternate form.)

2. In which सूत्रम् does पाणिनि: specifically mention the प्रातिपदिकम् “पुम्स्”? Why didn’t that सूत्रम् apply in this example? (Which condition was not satisfied?)

3. By which सूत्रम् does “साक्षात्” get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

4. By which सूत्रम् does “तु” get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

5. The अव्ययम् “इह” is formed by using the सूत्रम् 5-3-11 इदमो हः। It gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by –
a) 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।
b) 1-1-38 तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्तिः।
c) 1-1-39 कृन्मेजन्तः।
d) 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः।

6. Where is the प्रातिपदिकम् “पुम्स्” used in Chapter 2 of the गीता?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A man who has conquered passion (is) very difficult to find.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “पुम्स्” for “man”, the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “काम” for “passion” and the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “सुदुर्लभ” for “very difficult to find.” Use the pronouns “यद्” and “तद्”।

8. Please list the four synonyms for the word “पुमान्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “पुम्स्” masculine, meaning “man”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
स्युः पुमांसः पञ्चजनाः पुरुषाः पूरुषा नरः ।।२-६-१।।
(इति पञ्च “मनुष्यजातौ पुरुषस्य” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Please do पदच्छेद: of वरांस्ते and mention the relevant rules.

2. We have studied one नियम-सूत्रम् (a rule which limits the application of another rule) for 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि। Which one is it and where has it been used in the verse?

मरुताम् mGp

Today we will look at the form मरुताम्-mGp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb6-18-78

एवं ते सर्वमाख्यातं यन्मां त्वं परिपृच्छसि ।
मङ्गलं मरुतां जन्म किं भूयः कथयामि ते ।। ६-१८-७८ ।।

Gita Press translation “In this way I have told you all that you enquired of me, viz., the story of the auspicious birth of the Maruts. What more shall I speak to you about?”

‘मरुत्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्. The विवक्षा here is षष्ठी-विभक्तिः बहुवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ मरुत्’

(1) मरुत् + आम् ।

(2) मरुताम्

Questions:

1. Where is the word “मरुताम्” used in the गीता?

2. By which सूत्रम् does “एवम्” get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

3. Which five rules in the अष्टाध्यायी give the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

4. Which terms from the प्रादि-गण: (reference – 1-4-58 प्रादयः) have been used in this verse? Do they have the उपसर्ग-सञ्ज्ञा here?

5. In how many places has the युष्मद्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used? In each instance, please state if it is an optional form.

6. In this example, the अङ्गम् “ मरुत्” has:
a) पद-सञ्ज्ञा
b) भ-सञ्ज्ञा
c) Neither पद-सञ्ज्ञा nor भ-सञ्ज्ञा
d) Both पद-सञ्ज्ञा and भ-सञ्ज्ञा

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I shall tell you my opinion.” Use a verb from the verse and use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “मत” for “opinion.”

8. Please give the five synonyms of the word “जन्म” (प्रातिपदिकम् “जन्मन्” neuter, meaning “birth”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
जनुर्जननजन्मानि जनिरुत्पत्तिरुद्भवः ।।१-४-३०।।
(इति षट् “जननस्य” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Please do पदच्छेद: of “यन्माम्” and mention the relevant rules.

2. Derive the form “जन्म” (प्रथमा/द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) from the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “जन्मन्”।

भ्राता mNs

Today we will look at the form भ्राता-mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb8-19-7

निशम्य तद्वधं भ्राता हिरण्यकशिपुः पुरा ।
हन्तुं भ्रातृहणं क्रुद्धो जगाम निलयं हरेः ।। ८-१९-७ ।।

Gita Press translation “Hearing of his death, his (elder) brother, Hiraṇyakaśipu (Prahrāda’s father), full of rage, went of yore to the abode of Hari in order to kill the slayer of his brother.”

‘भ्रातृ’ gets प्रातिपदिकसञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्. The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-विभक्तिः एकवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भ्रातृ’

(1) भ्रातृ + सुँ ।

(2) भ्रात् अनँङ् + सुँ । By 7-1-94 ऋदुशनस्पुरुदंसोऽनेहसां च, ऋत् (short ऋ) ending words, as well as the words उशनस्, पुरुदंसस् and अनेहस् get the अनँङ् replacement when the सुँ suffix, that is not सम्बुद्धिः, follows. By 1-1-53 ङिच्च, a ङित् substitute (substitute which has the letter ङ् as a marker), even if it is अनेकाल् (having more than one letter), takes place of only the last letter of the term being substituted.

(3) भ्रातन् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् , 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(4) भ्रातान् + स् । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ, the penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in a नकार: gets elongated if it is followed by a non-vocative affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।

(5) भ्रातान् । सकार-लोपः by 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्। Using 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् भ्रातान् gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

(6) भ्राता । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य, the ending letter न् of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम् ।

Questions :

1. Which सूत्रम् is used to do the णकारादेश: in the form भ्रातृहणम्? (The प्रातिपदिकम् “भ्रातृहन्” is similar to the प्रातिपदिकम् “वृत्रहन्” which we have studied in the class.)

2. 1-1-53 ङिच्च (used in step 2) is an अपवाद: for which सूत्रम्?

3. By which सूत्रम् does “पुरा” get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

4. Where has this अव्ययम् “पुरा” been used in the गीता?

5. Which term from the प्रादि-गण: (reference – 1-4-58 प्रादयः) is used in this verse?

6. In commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-1-94 ऋदुशनस्पुरुदंसोऽनेहसां च, the काशिका says “असम्बुद्धौ इत्येव – हे मातः।” Please explain what this means.

7. Use some words from the verse to construct the following sentence in Sanskrit:
“Hearing the command of his father, Sri Rama went to the forest with Sita and Lakshmana.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “आदेश” for “command.”

8. Please list the fifteen synonyms for the word “निलय:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “निलय” masculine, meaning “abode/residence”) as given in the अमरकोश:। We’ve already seen these in a previous example. (Search this website for “निलय”)।

Easy questions:

1. Derive the form “हरे:” (षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “हरि”। (Use 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि, 7-3-111 घेर्ङिति and 6-1-110 ङसिङसोश्च)।

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-114 हशि च been used in the verse?

शतधन्वा mNs

Today we will look at the form शतधन्वा-mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-57-18

प्रत्याख्यातः स तेनापि शतधन्वा महामणिम् ।
तस्मिन्न्यस्याश्वमारुह्य शतयोजनगं ययौ ।। १०-५७-१८ ।।

Gita Press translation “Refused help even by Akrūra, Śatadhanvā deposited the valuable gem with him and, riding a horse capable of traversing (in a single journey) one hundred Yojanas (eight hundred miles), left (Dwārakā).”

‘शतधन्वन्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च

The विवक्षा here is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(1) शतधन्वन् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…

(2) शतधन्वान् + सुँ । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ, the penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in a नकार: gets elongated if it is followed by a non-vocative affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। See easy question 3.

(3) शतधन्वान् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(4) शतधन्वान् । सकार-लोपः by 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्। Using 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् शतधन्वान् gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

(5) शतधन्वा । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य, the ending letter न् of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम् ।

Questions:

1. Which of the terms listed in the प्रादि-गण: (reference 1-4-58 प्रादयः) have been used in this verse?

2. Out of these (from question 1) which have the उपसर्ग-सञ्ज्ञा (reference 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)?

3. By which सूत्रम् do the प्रादय: get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

4. Which of the following is true?
a) All the terms which have the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा, but not vice-versa.
b) All the terms which have the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा get the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा, but not vice-versa.
c) The निपात-सञ्ज्ञा is just another name for the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा।
d) There is no relationship between the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा। (They are disjoint sets.)

5. Can you spot a word in the first ten verses of Chapter 5 of the गीता which will follow the same steps as those used in this example? (Look for a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in “अन्” which is declined पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

6. As we have seen in previous examples, the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is used when we have the same doer doing two actions. The verbal root in the earlier action takes the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय:| (The सूत्रम् is 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले । If there is a compound formation then the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is replaced by ल्यप् as per 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्)। Which are the two words in this verse that end in the ल्यप्-प्रत्यय:? Who is the common doer? Which is the later action of the common doer?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The boy’s request was refused by his mother.” Use a प्रातिपदिकम् from the verse for “was refused” and use the feminine noun प्रार्थना for “request.”

Similarly, how would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This वार्त्तिकम् has been refuted in the महाभाष्यम्।” Use the same प्रातिपदिकम् from the verse for “has been refuted.”

8. The अमरकोश: gives thirteen words that mean “horse.” One of them is अश्व: (प्रातिपदिकम् “अश्व” masculine) used in this verse. Please list the remaining twelve.
घोटके वीति (पीति) तुरगतुरङ्गाश्वतुरङ्गमाः ।।२-८-४३।।
वाजिवाहार्वगन्धर्वहयसैन्धवसप्तयः।
(इति त्रयोदश “घोटकस्य” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Derive the form “तेन” (पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम्) from the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “तद्”। (Use 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः and 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः)।

2. Similarly, derive the form “तस्मिन्” (पुंलिङ्गे सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) from the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “तद्”। (Use 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः and 7-1-15 ङसिङ्योः स्मात्स्मिनौ)।

3. By which सूत्रम् did the सुँ-प्रत्यय: get the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा (required to apply 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ) in step 2?

तपस्वी mNs

Today we will look at the form तपस्वी -mNs from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् ।

तपःस्वाध्यायनिरतं तपस्वी वाग्विदां वरम् |
नारदं परिपप्रच्छ वाल्मीकिर्मुनिपुङ्गवम् || १-१-१||

Gita Press translation “The ascetic Vālmīki put the following question direct to Nārada, the chief of hermits, (nay) the foremost of those skilled in expression, who remains (ever) engaged in askesis and self-study (the study of the Vedas):-“

‘तपस्विन्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च । The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तपस्विन्’

(1) तपस्विन् + सुँ ।

(2) तपस्वीन् + सुँ । By 6-4-13 सौ च, the penultimate letter of words ending in इन्, हन्, पूषन् and अर्यमन् is lengthened when the सुँ affix – which is not सम्बुद्धि: – follows.

(3) तपस्वीन् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(4) तपस्वीन् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्, a single letter affix सुँ, ति or सि is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ङी or आप्। तपस्वीन् gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्, 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

(5) तपस्वी । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य, the ending letter न् of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. Where is the प्रातिपदिकम् “तपस्विन्” used in Chapter 6 of the गीता?

2. Which प्रातिपदिकम् used in the verse has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा?

3. Where has the आम्-प्रत्यय: been used?

4. In commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-13 सौ च, the काशिका says “असम्बुद्धौ इति किम्? हे दण्डिन्।” Please explain.

5. Why is the सूत्रम् 6-4-13 सौ च required? Why not just use 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ?

6. Which term from the प्रादि-गण: (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) has been used in this verse? Does it have the उपसर्ग-सञ्ज्ञा?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“What (is) the purpose of this सूत्रम्?” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “प्रयोजन” for “purpose.”

8. Please state the one synonym for the word “स्वाध्याय:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “स्वाध्याय” masculine, meaning “self-study (the study of the Vedas)”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
स्वाध्यायः स्याज्जपः ।।२-७-४७।।
(इति द्वे “वेदाध्ययनस्य” नामनी)

Easy questions:

1. Derive the form “नारदम्” (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “नारद”। (Declined like राम-शब्द:)।

2. Why didn’t the ending मकार: of “वरम्” change to an अनुस्वार: by 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः? Which condition was not satisfied?

चर्म nAs

Today we will look at the form चर्म-nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 9-15-28

घोरमादाय परशुं सतूणं चर्म कार्मुकम् ।
अन्वधावत दुर्धर्षो मृगेन्द्र इव यूथपम् ।। ९-१५-२८ ।।

Gita Press translation “Taking his terrible axe, shield and bow with a quiver, the formidable hero pursued the king like a lion (the king of beasts) chasing the leader of a herd of elephants.”

The नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चर्मन्’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चर्मन्’

(1) चर्मन् + अम् ।

(2) चर्मन् । By 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌, the affixes सुँ and अम् that follow a neuter अङ्गम् take the लुक् elision. “चर्मन्” gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्, 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

(3) चर्म । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य, the ending letter न् of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. As we have seen in previous examples, the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is used when we have the same doer doing two actions. The verbal root in the earlier action takes the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय:| (The सूत्रम् is 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले । If there is a compound formation then the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is replaced by ल्यप् as per 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्)। In this verse the word “आदाय” ends in ल्यप्-प्रत्यय:। Which is the later action of the common doer?

2. Which term used in the verse has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-17 भोभगोअघोअपूर्वस्य योऽशि been used?

4. In a prior example we looked at a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in “अन्” which is used both in the masculine and the neuter (in different meanings.) Can you recall which one it is?

5. Can you spot where an अपवाद: for 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ has been used in this verse?

6. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य been used in the first two verses of the गीता?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A guard chased the thief who had stolen many very valuable things.” Use the verb from the verse. Use the प्रतिपदिकम् “रक्षक” (in the masculine) for “guard” and the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “महार्ह” for “very valuable”, and “चोरित” for “stolen.” Make the second part of the sentence passive – “by whom many very valuable things had been stolen.”

8. Please list the two synonyms for the word “चर्म” (प्रातिपदिकम् “चर्मन्” neuter, meaning “shield”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
फलकोऽस्त्री फलं चर्म ।।२-८-९०।।
(इति त्रीणि “चर्मण:” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot where the सूत्रम् 6-1-114 हशि च has been used?

2. Derive the form “परशुम्” (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) from the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “परशु”।

सम्यक् nAs

Today we will look at the form सम्यक्-nAs from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् ।

तस्य तद्वचनं श्रुत्वा सम्यक्सत्यं सुभाषितम् |
जानकी बहु मेनेऽथ वचनं चेदमब्रवीत् || ५-३९-१८||

Gita Press translation “Hearing the aforesaid reply of Hanuman, which was reasonable, truthful and beautifully worded, the daughter of Janaka held him in great estimation and proceeded to speak as follows.”

To get the form “सम्यक्”, we have to start with the धातु: “अन्च्” preceded by the उपसर्ग: “सम्” ।

By 3-2-59 ऋत्विग्दधृक्स्रग्दिगुष्णिगञ्चुयुजिक्रुञ्चां च, “सम् अन्च्” gets the क्विन्-प्रत्यय:। क्विन् takes सर्वापहारलोपः। The ककार: and नकार: are removed using 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् along with 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The इकारः in the क्विन्-प्रत्यय: is उच्चारणार्थः। The single letter वकार: that remains gets अपृक्त-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-41 अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः। By 6-1-67 वेरपृक्तस्य, this वकार: which is अपृक्तः takes लोपः।

Now, since क्विन् is a कित्-प्रत्ययः, 6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति applies. The meaning of 6-4-24 is – the penultimate नकारः of bases that end in a consonant and that do not have इकारः as a marker, takes लोपः when followed by an affix that has ककारः or ङकारः as a marker. Thus the उपधा-नकारः of अन्च् takes लोपः to give “सम् अच्”।

By 6-3-93 समः समि, सम् gets समि as its replacement when it is followed by the verb अन्चुँ that ends in a affix having a वकार:, to give the form “समि अच्”।

The क्विन्-प्रत्यय: has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ् । By 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्, even though the क्विन्-प्रत्ययः has taken लोपः, “समि अच्” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and hence it will take the affixes सुँ, औ, जस् etc. mandated by 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…। The विवक्षा here is नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(1) समि अच् + अम् ।

(2) समि अच् । By 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌, the affixes सुँ and अम् that follow a neuter अङ्गम् take the लुक् elision.

(3) सम्यच् । यणादेशः by 6-1-77 इको यणचि। सम्यच् has the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् and 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

(4) सम्यक् । By 8-2-30 चोः कुः, the consonants of the च-वर्ग: (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्) get the consonants of the क-वर्ग: (क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्) as a replacement when they occur at the end of a पदम् or when they are followed by a झल् letter.

(5) सम्यग् । By 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते, when a झल् letter occurs at the end of a पदम् it is replaced by a जश् letter.

(6) सम्यक्/सम्यग् । By 8-4-56 वाऽवसाने, a झल् letter is optionally replaced by a चर् letter when nothing follows.

Questions:

1. What would have been the final form in the example, if the gender had been masculine?

2. Which noun is being qualified by the adjective सम्यक्?

3. Where has the form सम्यक् been used in the गीता? (It has been used as an adverb – hence declined नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)।

4. Which सूत्रम् could have been used between steps 5 and 6? (It won’t change the form.)

5. As we have seen in previous examples, the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is used when we have the same doer doing two actions. The verbal root in the earlier action takes the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय:| (The सूत्रम् is 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले)। In this verse the word “श्रुत्वा” ends in the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय:। Who is the समानकर्ता/समानकर्त्री and which is his/her later action?

6. Where else (besides in the form “सम्यक्”) has the सूत्रम् 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ been used in the verse?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This (is) the seventh question. The eighth question (is) the last.” Use the adjective “चरम” for “last.”

8. Please list the eleven synonyms of the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “बहु” (meaning “abundant/great”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
प्रभूतं प्रचुरं प्राज्यमदभ्रं बहुलं बहु ।
पुरुहं पुरु भूयिष्ठं स्फिरं भूयश्च भूरि च ।।३-१-६३।।
(इति द्वादश “अनल्पस्य” नामानि)

Note: Some editions of the अमरकोश: have “स्फारम्” instead of “स्फिरम्”।

Easy questions:

1. Derive the form “तस्य” (पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “तद्” (सर्वनाम-शब्द:)। (Use 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः and 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः।)

2. Which सूत्रम् has been used to get च + इदम् = चेदम् ?

3. Can you spot where the सूत्रम् 6-1-109 एङः पदान्तादति has been used in the verse?

व्योम्नि nLs

Today we will look at the form व्योम्नि-nLs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 10-20-44

अखण्डमण्डलो व्योम्नि रराजोडुगणैः शशी ।
यथा यदुपतिः कृष्णो वृष्णिचक्रावृतो भुवि ।। १०-२०-४४ ।।

Gita Press translation “The full moon shone in the firmament with the host of stars (even) as on the earth did Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Protector of the Yadus, surrounded by the circle of Vṛṣṇis.”

The neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘व्योमन्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is सप्तमी-एकवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘व्योमन्’

(1) व्योमन् + ङि ।

(2) व्योमन् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The अङ्गम् “व्योमन्” gets भ-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-18 यचि भम्

(3) व्योम्नि । By 6-4-136 विभाषा ङिश्योः, the अकारः of the अन् in the अङ्गम् when a स्वादि-प्रत्यय: that follows is not सर्वनामस्थानम् and which either begins with a यकारः or a vowel (अच्), is elided only optionally when the प्रत्यय: that is following is “ङि” or “शी”।

Questions:

1. Which is the other (optional) final form possible in this example?

2. In Chapter 8 of the गीता, can you spot a सप्तमी-एकवचनम् (just like in this example) of a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in “अन्”?

3. Which entire सूत्रम् comes as अनुवृत्ति: into 6-4-136 विभाषा ङिश्योः?

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-136 विभाषा ङिश्योः, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says “शीति ‘नपुंसकाच्च’ इति विहितो गृह्यते, न तु ‘जश्शसोः शिः’। तस्मिन्नभत्वात्।” Please explain what this means.

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-13 सौ च been used?

6. Can you spot an उवँङ्-आदेश: in the verse?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Rama shone, sitting along with Sita, on the throne.” Use the verb from the verse. Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “आसीन” for sitting and the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “सिंहासन” for “throne.”

8. Please give the five synonyms for the word “उडु/उडु:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “उडु” neuter/feminine, meaning “star”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
नक्षत्रमृक्षं भं तारा तारकाऽप्युडु वा स्त्रियाम् ।।१-३-२१।।
(इति षड् “नक्षत्रसामान्यस्य” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Does “पति” – used in the compound “यदुपति” – get the घि-सञ्ज्ञा? Does it get the घि-सञ्ज्ञा when it is not part of a compound?

2. Which सूत्रम् was used to get रराज + उडुगणै: = रराजोडुगणै:?

चत्वारि nNp

Today we will look at the form चत्वारि-nNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 3-11-19

चत्वारि त्रीणि द्वे चैकं कृतादिषु यथाक्रमम् ।
सङ्ख्यातानि सहस्राणि द्विगुणानि शतानि च ।। ३-११-१९ ।।

Gita Press translation “The Kṛtayuga and the succeeding Yugas severally consist of four, three, two and one thousand celestial years plus twice as many hundred years (representing the Sandhyā and Sandhyāṁśa of each Yuga).”

‘चतुर्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्। 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चतुर्’.

(1) चतुर् + जस् ।

(2) चतुर् + शि । By 7-1-20 जश्शसोः शिः, the affixes जस् and शस् get शि as the replacement when they follow a neuter अङ्गम्। As per 1-1-42 शि सर्वनामस्थानम्, the affix शि gets the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।

(3) चतु आम् र् + शि । By 7-1-98 चतुरनडुहोरामुदात्तः, when a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix follows, चतुर् and अनडुह् get the आम् augment. As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, the आम्-आगम: will attach itself after the last vowel in “चतुर्” which is the उकार:।

(4) चतु आ र् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) चत्वारि । यणादेशः by 6-1-77 इको यणचि

Questions:

1. Where is the सूत्रम् 7-1-98 चतुरनडुहोरामुदात्तः used in the Tenth Chapter of the गीता?

2. What would have been the final form in this example, if the gender had been feminine?

3. In the declension table of “चतुर्” in the neuter, where is there a विकल्प: (option – two forms.)

4. Which सर्वनाम-शब्द: has been used in the verse?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-19 नपुंसकाच्च been used?

6. Under the सूत्रम् 7-1-98 चतुरनडुहोरामुदात्तः, the काशिका gives an example “अनड्वान्”। Please give the steps required to derive “अनड्वान्”।

7. We have studied one अपवाद-सूत्रम् for 7-1-98 चतुरनडुहोरामुदात्तः। Which one is it?

8. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Four bulls, eating grass in the field, were seen by us.” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् “अनडुह्” for “bull”, use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “दृष्ट” for “were seen” and the adjective शतृँ-प्रत्ययान्त-प्रातिपदिकम् “अश्नत्” for “eating.”

Easy questions:

1. By which सूत्रम् does the शि-प्रत्यय: get the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा (required to apply 7-1-98 चतुरनडुहोरामुदात्तः in step 3)?

2. Derive the form त्रीणि (नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “त्रि”। (Use 7-1-72 नपुंसकस्य झलचः and 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ)।

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