Home » 2011 » March » 19

Daily Archives: March 19, 2011

धनुषी nAd

Today we will look at the form धनुषी from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् ।

ततः शुभतरे तूणी धनुषी चायतेक्षणा |
ददौ सीता तयोर्भ्रात्रोः खड्गौ च विमलौ ततः || ३-८-१८ ||

Gita Press translation “Then Sītā, possessed of large eyes, handed to those two brothers very excellent quivers, (two) bows and polished swords.”

The नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धनुस्’ is formed from धन्-धातुः with the उणादि-प्रत्ययः “उस्‌”। “धनुस्” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। The विवक्षा here is द्वितीया-विभक्तिः द्विवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धनुस्’

(1) धनुस् + औट् ।

(2) धनुस् + शी । By 7-1-19 नपुंसकाच्च, the affixes औ and औट् take शी as their replacement when following a neuter अङ्गम्।

(3) धनुस् + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(4) धनुषी । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः, the letter स् is replaced by the cerebral ष् when preceded either by a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: or a letter of the क-वर्ग: (क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्)। This substitution only takes place if the स् is an आदेश: or part of a प्रत्यय:। (Here the सकारः is a part of the उणादि-प्रत्ययः “उस्”)।


1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः been used?

2. The अनुवृत्ति: of “शी” comes into 7-1-19 नपुंसकाच्च from a सूत्रम् that we’ve studied. Which one is that?

3. The सूत्रम् 7-1-19 नपुंसकाच्च has been used in the first word of a verse in the Second Chapter of the गीता। Which verse is it?

4. पाणिनि: mentions the उणादि-प्रत्यया: in the first सूत्रम् of a पाद: (quarter) in the अष्टाध्यायी। Which पाद: is it? (For a good brief description of “उणादि” please see Prof. Abhyankar’s “Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.” The answer to this question can also be found there.)

5. Can you spot a ऋकारान्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in a ऋकार:) used in the verse?

6. Similar to the प्रातिपदिकम् “धनुस्”, there is a नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ending in “उस्” used in the first ten verses of Chapter 11 of the गीता। Can you find it?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sri Rama gave his (two) sandals to Bharata.” Use the verb from the verse. Use the प्रातिपदिकम् “पादुका” for “sandal.” Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with Bharata.

8. Please state the one synonym for the word “आयतम्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “आयत” adjective, meaning “long/large”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
दीर्घमायतम् ।।३-१-६९।।
(इति द्वे “विस्तृतस्य” नामनी)

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् was used to get च + आयतेक्षणा = चायतेक्षणा?

2. Derive the form खड्गौ (द्वितीया-द्विवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “खड्ग” (declined like राम-शब्द:)।

Recent Posts