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अहः nNs

Today we will look at the form अहः from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् ।

त्वरते कार्यकालो मे अहश्चाप्यतिवर्तते |
प्रतिज्ञा च मया दत्ता न स्थातव्यमिहान्तरा || ५-१-१३१||

Gita Press translation “The time allotted to my duty (of leaping across the sea and tracing out Sītā) is hastening me. The day too is passing. Nay, the plighted word has been given by me (to my fellow monkeys) to the effect that I should not tarry here midway.”

The नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अहन्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्। 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अहन्’।

(1) अहन् + सुँ ।

(2) अहन् । By 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌, since the affix सुँ follows the neuter अङ्गम् “अहन्”, it takes the लुक् elision.

(3) अहर् । By 8-2-69 रोऽसुपि, रेफः is substituted for (the ending नकार: of) अहन्, since the सुँ-प्रत्ययः has taken लुक् ।

(4) अहः । विसर्ग-आदेशः by 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. 8-2-69 रोऽसुपि is an अपवाद: for which सूत्रम्?

2. What kind of प्रतिषेध: (पर्युदास-प्रतिषेध: or प्रसज्य-प्रतिषेध:) is indicated by the term “असुपि” in the सूत्रम् 8-2-69 रोऽसुपि?

3. Where is the word अहः used in Chapter 8 of the गीता? Is it प्रथमा-एकवचनम् or द्वितीया-एकवचनम्?

4. Can you spot a place in the verse where a सन्धि-कार्यम् has not been done?

5. Where has the टा-प्रत्यय: been used?

6. What will be the प्रथमा/द्वितीया-द्विवचनम् form of the अहन्-प्रातिपदिकम्?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In one month (there are) thirty days. In one day (there are) twenty-four hours.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “त्रिंशत्” (declined singular) for “thirty”, the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “चतुर्विंशति” (declined singular) for “twenty-four” and the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “होरा” for “hour.”

8. Please list the four synonyms for the word “अह:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “अहन्” neuter, meaning “day”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
घस्रो दिनाऽहनी वा तु क्लीबे दिवसवासरौ ।।१-४-२।।
(इति पञ्च “दिनस्य” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Please do पदच्छेद: of अहश्च and mention the relevant rules.

2. Which सूत्रम् was used to get च + अपि = चापि? Which one for अपि + अतिवर्तते = अप्यतिवर्तते?

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