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Daily Archives: March 25, 2011

चर्म nAs

Today we will look at the form चर्म-nAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 9-15-28

घोरमादाय परशुं सतूणं चर्म कार्मुकम् ।
अन्वधावत दुर्धर्षो मृगेन्द्र इव यूथपम् ।। ९-१५-२८ ।।

Gita Press translation “Taking his terrible axe, shield and bow with a quiver, the formidable hero pursued the king like a lion (the king of beasts) chasing the leader of a herd of elephants.”

The नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चर्मन्’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चर्मन्’

(1) चर्मन् + अम् ।

(2) चर्मन् । By 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌, the affixes सुँ and अम् that follow a neuter अङ्गम् take the लुक् elision. “चर्मन्” gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्, 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

(3) चर्म । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य, the ending letter न् of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।


1. As we have seen in previous examples, the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is used when we have the same doer doing two actions. The verbal root in the earlier action takes the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय:| (The सूत्रम् is 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले । If there is a compound formation then the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is replaced by ल्यप् as per 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्)। In this verse the word “आदाय” ends in ल्यप्-प्रत्यय:। Which is the later action of the common doer?

2. Which term used in the verse has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-17 भोभगोअघोअपूर्वस्य योऽशि been used?

4. In a prior example we looked at a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in “अन्” which is used both in the masculine and the neuter (in different meanings.) Can you recall which one it is?

5. Can you spot where an अपवाद: for 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ has been used in this verse?

6. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य been used in the first two verses of the गीता?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A guard chased the thief who had stolen many very valuable things.” Use the verb from the verse. Use the प्रतिपदिकम् “रक्षक” (in the masculine) for “guard” and the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “महार्ह” for “very valuable”, and “चोरित” for “stolen.” Make the second part of the sentence passive – “by whom many very valuable things had been stolen.”

8. Please list the two synonyms for the word “चर्म” (प्रातिपदिकम् “चर्मन्” neuter, meaning “shield”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
फलकोऽस्त्री फलं चर्म ।।२-८-९०।।
(इति त्रीणि “चर्मण:” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot where the सूत्रम् 6-1-114 हशि च has been used?

2. Derive the form “परशुम्” (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) from the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “परशु”।

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