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Daily Archives: March 18, 2011

महान्ति nAp

Today we will look at the form महान्ति-nAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 12-7-22

एवंलक्षणलक्ष्याणि पुराणानि पुराविदः ।
मुनयोऽष्टादश प्राहुः क्षुल्लकानि महान्ति च ।। १२-७-२२ ।।

Gita Press translation “Sages well-versed in the antiquities tell us of eighteen Purāṇas, big and small (in volume), distinguished by the aforesaid characteristics.”

‘महत्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महत्’

Note: By the उणादि-सूत्रम् “वर्तमाने पृषद्-बृहन्महज्जगद् शतृँवच्च।” the प्रातिपदिकम् “महत्” will undergo the same operations as a शतृँ-प्रत्ययान्त-शब्द:। This makes it उगित् (one that has an उक् letter as an इत्) and hence 7-1-70 can apply.

(1) महत् + शस् ।

(2) महत् + शि । By 7-1-20 जश्शसोः शिः, the affixes जस् and शस् get शि as the replacement when they follow a neuter अङ्गम्। As per 1-1-42 शि सर्वनामस्थानम्, the affix शि gets the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।

(3) मह नुँम् त् + शि । By either 7-1-70 or 7-1-72, we get the नुँम् augmentation. By 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः, a non-verbal base with an उक् (उ, ऋ, ऌ) as a marker and the verbal base अञ्चुँ whose नकारः has taken elision takes the नुँम् augment when followed by a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix. By 7-1-72 नपुंसकस्य झलचः, when a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix follows, the neuter bases that end in a झल् letter or an अच् (vowel) get the नुँम् augment. As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, an augment with मकारः as the इत् letter attaches itself after last vowel of the term to which it is prescribed. In the present case, the नुँम्-आगम: will come after the latter अकार: (the one following the हकार:) in महत्।

(4) महन्त् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) महान्ति । By 6-4-10 सान्तमहतः संयोगस्य, when a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix other than a सम्बुद्धिः follows, the letter preceding the नकारः of a base that ends in a सान्त-संयोग: (a conjunct ending in a सकार:) or of the word महत् is elongated.
See question 6.


1. “महान्ति” is an adjective. Which noun is it qualifying in the verse?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् been used?

3. In which verse of Chapter 1 of the गीता has the महत्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used नपुंसकलिङ्गे?

4. In step 3, both 7-1-70 and 7-1-72 are applicable and they give the same result (prescribe the नुँम्-आगम:)। In the commentary on 7-1-72, the काशिका gives the following opinion on this issue – “उगितो झलन्तस्य नपुंसकस्य परत्वादनेन एव नुम् भवति।” Please explain.

5. In this example, we could have managed without making the महत्-प्रातिपदिकम् “शतृँ-वत्” (hence उगित्) by the उणादि-सूत्रम् “वर्तमाने पृषद्-बृहन्महज्जगद् शतृँवच्च।” We just use 7-1-72 नपुंसकस्य झलचः (which does not require उगित्)। 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः (which requires उगित्) is not necessary. This being the case, what is the point of making the महत्-प्रातिपदिकम् “शतृँ-वत्” (hence उगित्)?

6. Which two rules (from the त्रिपादी section) should be applied after step 5? (The final form will be the same – महान्ति)।

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The गीता has been studied by many great scholars.” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् “विद्वस्” for “scholar” and the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “अधीत (अधीता feminine)” for “has been studied.”

8. Please list the eight synonyms of the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “महत्” (meaning “large/great”) as given in the अमरकोश:। We have already seen these in a prior example. (Search this web site for “महत्”)।

Easy questions:

1. In this example the नुँम्-आगम: was used. After removing the इत् letters (by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्) only the नकार: remains. Can you recall another आगम: that we have studied which (after removing the इत् letters) is also a नकार:?

2. Derive the form “मुनय:” (प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “मुनि”। (Use 7-3-109 जसि च)।

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