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तिर्यक् nNs

Today we will look at the form तिर्यक्-nNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb4-29-29

क्वचित्पुमान्क्वचिच्च स्त्री क्वचिन्नोभयमन्धधीः ।
देवो मनुष्यस्तिर्यग्वा यथाकर्मगुणं भवः ।। ४-२९-२९ ।।

Gita Press translation “The deluded Jīva is sometimes (born as) a male, now (as) a female, and now it is (born) without gender either as a god or as a human being or in the sub-human species, the birth being determined by its past actions and the mode of Pakṛti (predominating in at the time of death preceding that birth).”

To get the form “तिर्यक्”, we have to start with the धातु “अन्च्” preceded by “तिरस्” । “तिरस् + अन्च्” means “moving horizontally” (hence “sub-human”.)

By 3-2-59 ऋत्विग्दधृक्स्रग्दिगुष्णिगञ्चुयुजिक्रुञ्चां च, “तिरस् अन्च्” gets the क्विन्-प्रत्यय:। क्विन् takes सर्वापहारलोपः। The ककार: and नकार: are removed using 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् along with 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The इकारः in the क्विन्-प्रत्यय: is उच्चारणार्थः। The single letter वकार: that remains gets अपृक्त-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-41 अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः। By 6-1-67 वेरपृक्तस्य, this वकार: which is अपृक्तः takes लोपः।

Now, since क्विन् is a कित्-प्रत्ययः, by 6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति, the penultimate नकारः of bases that end in a consonant and that do not have इकारः as a marker, takes लोपः when followed by an affix that has ककारः or ङकारः as a marker. The उपधा-नकारः of अन्च् takes लोपः to give “तिरस् अच्”।

The क्विन्-प्रत्यय: has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ् । By 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्, even though the क्विन्-प्रत्ययः has taken लोपः, “तिरस् अच्” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and hence it will take the affixes सुँ, औ, जस् etc. mandated by 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…। The विवक्षा here is नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(1) तिरस् अच् + सुँ ।

(2) तिरस् अच् । By 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌, the affixes सुँ and अम् that follow a neuter अङ्गम् take the लुक् elision.

(3) तिरि अच् । By 6-3-94 तिरसस्तिर्यलोपे, तिरस् gets तिरि as its replacement, when it is followed by the verb अन्चुँ that ends in a affix having a वकार:। This substitution does not take place when the अकारः of अन्चुँ takes लोपः। See question 3.

(4) तिर्यच् । यणादेशः by 6-1-77 इको यणचि। तिर्यच् has the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

(5) तिर्यक् । By 8-2-30 चोः कुः, the consonants of the च-वर्ग: (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्) get the consonants of the क-वर्ग: (क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्) as a replacement when they occur at the end of a पदम् or when they are followed by a झल् letter.

(6) तिर्यग् । By 8-2-39 झलां जशोऽन्ते, when a झल् letter occurs at the end of a पदम् it is replaced by a जश् letter.

(7) तिर्यक्/तिर्यग् । By 8-4-56 वाऽवसाने, a झल् letter is optionally replaced by a चर् letter when nothing follows.


1. In commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-94 तिरसस्तिर्यलोपे, the काशिका says “अलोपे इति किम्? तिरश्चा।” Please explain what this means.

2. What would have been the final form in this example if the gender were to be masculine?

3. In step 3, we could use 6-3-94 तिरसस्तिर्यलोपे because the अकार: of अन्चुँ had not taken लोप:। Which सूत्रम् is used to do the अकार-लोप:? Why did that सूत्रम् not apply in this example?

4. Can you spot an असुँङ्-आदेश: in the verse?

5. Where is the सूत्रम् 8-4-45 यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा used?

6. Can you recall a सूत्रम् (which we have studied) in the त्रिपादी section in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions the क्विन्-प्रत्यय:?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This is the longest सूत्रम् in the अष्टाध्यायी।” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “दीर्घतम” for “longest.”

8. Please list the ten synonyms for the word “स्त्री” (प्रातिपदिकम् “स्त्री” feminine, meaning “woman”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
स्त्री योषिदबला योषा नारी सीमन्तिनी वधूः ।
प्रतीपदर्शिनी वामा वनिता महिला तथा ।।२-६-२।।
(इति एकादश “नार्या:” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used to get न + उभयम् = नोभयम्?

2. Please do पदच्छेद: of क्वचिच्च and mention the relevant rules.

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