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आपः fNp

Today we will look at the form आपः from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 3-20-5

तयोः संवदतोः सूत प्रवृत्ता ह्यमलाः कथाः ।
आपो गाङ्गा इवाघघ्नीर्हरेः पादाम्बुजाश्रयाः ।। ३-२०-५ ।।

Gita Press translation “In the course of their conversation, O Sūta, there must have proceeded sacred stories centering around the lotus-feet of Śrī Hari, and hence capable of wiping out all sins like the waters of the holy Gaṇgā that have their source in those very feet.”

The स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अप्’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। This is a नित्यं बहुवचनान्त-शब्द:। The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अप्’

(1) अप् + जस् । ‘जस्’ is a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix by 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य

(2) आप् + जस् । By 6-4-11 अप्तृन्तृच्स्वसृनप्तृनेष्टृत्वष्टृक्षत्तृहोतृपोतृप्रशास्तॄणाम्, since a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix that is not a सम्बुद्धिः follows, the penultimate vowel of अप् is elongated.

(3) आप् + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of जस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(4) आपः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Where is the word “आपः” used in Chapter 2 of the गीता?

2. Can you spot an आर्ष-प्रयोग: (a word form which is not in accordance with the rules of पाणिनि:) in the verse?

3. True or false?
“जस्” is the only सर्वनामस्थान-प्रत्यय: that can come after the प्रातिपदिकम् “अप्”।

4. Can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the शतृँ-प्रत्यय:?

5. Which सूत्रम् was used to replace the ending इकार: of the प्रातिपदिकम् “हरि” by an एकार: in the form “हरे:”?

6. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-104 ओसि च been used?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Only one question (is) difficult, all the others (are) easy.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “सुकर” for “easy” and the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “दुष्कर” for “difficult.”

8. The अमरकोश: gives eleven synonyms for the word “पापम्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “पाप” neuter, meaning “sin/evil”). One of them is अघम् (प्रातिपदिकम् “अघ” neuter) used in this verse. Please list the other ten.
We have already seen these in a prior example – search this web site for “पाप”।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् was used to get हि + अमलाः = ह्यमलाः? Which one for इव + अघघ्नी: = इवाघघ्नी:?

2. Derive the form “कथा:” (प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “कथा”।

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