Home » 2011 » March » 27

Daily Archives: March 27, 2011

शतधन्वा mNs

Today we will look at the form शतधन्वा-mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-57-18

प्रत्याख्यातः स तेनापि शतधन्वा महामणिम् ।
तस्मिन्न्यस्याश्वमारुह्य शतयोजनगं ययौ ।। १०-५७-१८ ।।

Gita Press translation “Refused help even by Akrūra, Śatadhanvā deposited the valuable gem with him and, riding a horse capable of traversing (in a single journey) one hundred Yojanas (eight hundred miles), left (Dwārakā).”

‘शतधन्वन्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च

The विवक्षा here is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(1) शतधन्वन् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा…

(2) शतधन्वान् + सुँ । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ, the penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in a नकार: gets elongated if it is followed by a non-vocative affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। See easy question 3.

(3) शतधन्वान् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(4) शतधन्वान् । सकार-लोपः by 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्। Using 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् शतधन्वान् gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

(5) शतधन्वा । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य, the ending letter न् of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम् ।


1. Which of the terms listed in the प्रादि-गण: (reference 1-4-58 प्रादयः) have been used in this verse?

2. Out of these (from question 1) which have the उपसर्ग-सञ्ज्ञा (reference 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)?

3. By which सूत्रम् do the प्रादय: get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

4. Which of the following is true?
a) All the terms which have the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा, but not vice-versa.
b) All the terms which have the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा get the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा, but not vice-versa.
c) The निपात-सञ्ज्ञा is just another name for the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा।
d) There is no relationship between the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा। (They are disjoint sets.)

5. Can you spot a word in the first ten verses of Chapter 5 of the गीता which will follow the same steps as those used in this example? (Look for a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in “अन्” which is declined पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

6. As we have seen in previous examples, the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is used when we have the same doer doing two actions. The verbal root in the earlier action takes the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय:| (The सूत्रम् is 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले । If there is a compound formation then the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is replaced by ल्यप् as per 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्)। Which are the two words in this verse that end in the ल्यप्-प्रत्यय:? Who is the common doer? Which is the later action of the common doer?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The boy’s request was refused by his mother.” Use a प्रातिपदिकम् from the verse for “was refused” and use the feminine noun प्रार्थना for “request.”

Similarly, how would you say this in Sanskrit?
“This वार्त्तिकम् has been refuted in the महाभाष्यम्।” Use the same प्रातिपदिकम् from the verse for “has been refuted.”

8. The अमरकोश: gives thirteen words that mean “horse.” One of them is अश्व: (प्रातिपदिकम् “अश्व” masculine) used in this verse. Please list the remaining twelve.
घोटके वीति (पीति) तुरगतुरङ्गाश्वतुरङ्गमाः ।।२-८-४३।।
(इति त्रयोदश “घोटकस्य” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Derive the form “तेन” (पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम्) from the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “तद्”। (Use 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः and 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः)।

2. Similarly, derive the form “तस्मिन्” (पुंलिङ्गे सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) from the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “तद्”। (Use 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः and 7-1-15 ङसिङ्योः स्मात्स्मिनौ)।

3. By which सूत्रम् did the सुँ-प्रत्यय: get the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा (required to apply 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ) in step 2?

Recent Posts