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क्षिणोति 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form क्षिणोति 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10.39.30

योऽह्नः क्षये व्रजमनन्तसखः परीतो गोपैर्विशन्खुररजश्छुरितालकस्रक् ।
वेणुं क्वणन्स्मितकटाक्षनिरीक्षणेन चित्तं क्षिणोत्यमुमृते नु कथं भवेम ।। १०-३९-३० ।।

Gita Press translation “How can we really survive without Him who – while entering Vraja at the close of the day, accompanied by Balarāma (who is possessed of infinite strength) and surrounded by cowherd boys and playing on the flute, His curly locks and wreaths of flowers covered all over with the dust raised by the hoofs of the cows – used to captivate our mind with His sidelong glances full of smiles?”

Note: As per श्रीधर-स्वामी, here the meaning of क्षिणोति = हरति।

क्षिणोति is derived from the धातुः √क्षि (स्वादि-गणः, क्षि हिंसायाम्, धातु-पाठः # ५. ३३)

In the धातुपाठ:, √क्षि does not have any इत् letter. Hence this धातु: is devoid of any indications for taking आत्मनेपदप्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Hence as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, in the active voice √क्षि takes परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः by default.

Since the विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्ययः is “तिप्”।

(1) क्षि + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) क्षि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) क्षि + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) क्षि + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) क्षि + श्नु + ति । By 3-1-73 स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः, the श्नु-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots of the स्वादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌

(6) क्षि + नु + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Note: By 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the नु-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत् (behaves like having a ङकारः as an इत्)। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेशः for the ending इकार: (of the अङ्गम् “क्षि”) which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(7) क्षिनोति । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(8) क्षिणोति । णकारादेश: by 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि


1. Where has 3-1-73 स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः (used in step 5 of this example) been used in the last five verses of Chapter Sixteen of the गीता?

2. Where has the “अदस्”-प्रातिपदिकम् been used in the verse?

3. Where has 3-4-99 नित्यं ङितः been used in the verse?

4. Which सूत्रम् from the “भस्य”-अधिकार: has been used in the verse?

5. Use some words from the verse to construct the following sentence in Sanskrit:
“How would we possibly survive (live) without water?” Use √जीव् (जीवँ प्राणधारणे १. ६४३) for “to live.”

6. Use some words from the verse to construct the following sentence in Sanskrit:
“At the end of the day we were all tried.” Use the adjective “श्रान्त” for “tired.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the “नुँम्”-आगम: in the form विशन् (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्, प्रातिपदिकम् “विशत्”)? Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् “विशत्” ends in the “शतृँ”-प्रत्यय:।

2. Where has 7-1-9 अतो भिस ऐस् been used in the verse?

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