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पिनष्टि 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form पिनष्टि 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb5.10.23

शास्ताभिगोप्ता नृपतिः प्रजानां यः किङ्करो वै न पिनष्टि पिष्टम् ।
स्वधर्ममाराधनमच्युतस्य यदीहमानो विजहात्यघौघम् ।। ५-१०-२३ ।।

Gita Press translation “(Granted that the relation of master and servant subsisting between a ruler and his subjects is not permanent or unchangeable) A king is (nevertheless for the time being) the ruler and protector of the people. He who is a servant (of the Lord, that is, he who does his duty as a piece if service to the Lord) does not grind what is already ground (undertake an unprofitable business), for (although he may not be able to rid a dunce of his stupidity by upbraiding him for his remissness, he thereby carries out the Lord’s behests and) by offering worship to the Lord in the shape of performing his duty he is able to get rid of his stock of sins.”

पिनष्टि is derived from the धातुः √पिष् (रुधादि-गणः, पिषॢँ सञ्चूर्णने, धातु-पाठः # ७. १५)

The ending ऌकारः of “पिषॢँ” has a उदात्त-स्वरः। Thus it is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √पिष्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √पिष्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोगः।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) पिष् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) पिष् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) पिष् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) पिष् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) पि श्नम् ष् + ति । By 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्, the श्नम्-प्रत्ययः is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the रुधादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः that is used signifying the agent. श्नम् is a मित्। Hence as per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, it is placed after the last vowel (इकार:) of the अङ्गम् “पिष्”।
This सूत्रम् is a अपवादः (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌
Note: The purpose of the शकार: (which is an इत् by 1-3-8) in “श्नम्” is in order for पाणिनि: to be able to refer specifically to this प्रत्यय: in rules such as 6-4-23, 6-4-111 etc. It is not for getting the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा (by 3-4-113.) Since this प्रत्यय: does not follow the अङ्गम् (it is placed inside the अङ्गम् as per 1-1-47), it cannot act on the अङ्गम् and hence no purpose would be served by assigning the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) पिनष् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) पिनष्टि । By 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः , when the letter स् or a letter of the त-वर्ग: (त्, थ्, द्, ध्, न्) comes in contact with either the letter ष् or a letter of the ट-वर्ग: (ट्, ठ्, ड्, ढ्, ण्) then it is replaced respectively by ष्, ट-वर्ग: (ट्, ठ्, ड्, ढ्, ण्).


1. Where has 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम् been used in Chapter Thirteen of the गीता?

2. Can you spot a “अनँङ्”-आदेश: in the verse?

3. Can you spot a “श्लु” elision in the verse?

4. Approximately how many verbal roots are listed in the रुधादि-गण:?
i. 25
ii. 50
iii. 100
iv. 200

5. Use some words from the verse to construct the following sentence in Sanskrit.
“Why do you grind what has (already) been ground?” (This is an idiomatic expression which means “Doing something which has already been done.”) Use the अव्ययम् “कस्मात्” for “why.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Get rid of this anxiety.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “चिन्ता” for “anxiety.” Use a धातु:/उपसर्ग: from the verse for “to get rid of.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् has been used for the “नुँट्”-आगम: in the form प्रजानाम्?

2. Where has 6-1-114 हशि च been used in the verse?

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