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संयुनक्ति 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form संयुनक्ति 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb1.13.40

नारद उवाच
मा कञ्चन शुचो राजन्यदीश्वरवशं जगत् ।
लोकाः सपाला यस्येमे वहन्ति बलिमीशितुः ।
स संयुनक्ति भूतानि स एव वियुनक्ति च ।। १-१३-४० ।।

Gita Press translation “Grieve not for anybody, O king; for the world is under control of God. It is to Him, the supreme Ruler of all, that all these worlds along with their rulers offer their homage. It is He who unites and He again who parts living beings from one another.”

युनक्ति is derived from the धातुः √युज् (रुधादि-गणः, युजिँर् योगे, धातु-पाठः # ७. ७)

By the वार्तिकम् – इर इत्सञ्ज्ञा वाच्या, “इर्” of “युजिँर्” gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा । The इकारः of “इर्” has a स्वरित-स्वर: here. Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √युज्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √युज्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √युज् will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √युज्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) युज् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) युज् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) युज् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) युज् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) यु श्नम् ज् + ति । By 3-1-78 रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्, the श्नम्-प्रत्ययः is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the रुधादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः that is used signifying the agent. श्नम् is a मित्। Hence as per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, it is placed after the last vowel (उकार:) of the अङ्गम् “युज्”।
This सूत्रम् is a अपवादः (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌
Note: The purpose of the शकार: (which is an इत् by 1-3-8) in “श्नम्” is in order for पाणिनि: to be able to refer specifically to this प्रत्यय: in rules such as 6-4-23, 6-4-111 etc. It is not for getting the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा (by 3-4-113.) Since this प्रत्यय: does not follow the अङ्गम् (it is placed inside the अङ्गम् as per 1-1-47), it cannot act on the अङ्गम् and hence no purpose would be served by assigning the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) युनज् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) युनग् + ति । By 8-2-30 चोः कुः, the consonants of the च-वर्ग: (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्) get the consonants of the क-वर्ग: (क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्) as a replacement when they occur at the end of a पदम् or when they are followed by a झल् letter.

(8) युनक्ति । 8-4-55 खरि च

“सम्” is the उपसर्गः (ref 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)
सम् + युनक्ति = संयुनक्ति (8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः)


1. Where has √युज् (रुधादि-गणः, युजिँर् योगे, धातु-पाठः # ७. ७) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the first ten verses of Chapter Six of the गीता?

2. What would have been the final form in this verse had a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय: been used?

3. Why didn’t 6-4-111 श्नसोरल्लोपः apply in this example? (Which condition was not satisfied?)

4. Where has 7-2-109 दश्च been used in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The teacher appointed me for (in) this job.” Use √युज् (युजिँर् योगे, धातु-पाठः # ७. ७) with the उपसर्ग: “नि” for “to appoint.” Use a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:। Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “कार्य” for “job.” Use सप्तमी विभक्ति: with “this job.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“(You) Be ready for war.” Use √युज् (युजिँर् योगे, धातु-पाठः # ७. ७) in the passive for “to be ready.” Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with “war.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 8-2-8 न ङिसम्बुद्ध्योः been used in the verse?

2. Can you spot a यकार-लोप: (elision of the letter “य्”) in the verse?

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