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(प्रति) कुर्यात् 3As-विधिलिँङ्

Today we will look at the form (प्रति) कुर्यात् 3As-विधिलिँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb3.31.18

येनेदृशीं गतिमसौ दशमास्य ईश सङ्ग्राहितः पुरुदयेन भवादृशेन ।
स्वेनैव तुष्यतु कृतेन स दीननाथः को नाम तत्प्रति विनाञ्जलिमस्य कुर्यात् ।। ३-३१-१८ ।।

Gita Press translation “Overflowing with compassion, it is Your peerless Self, O Lord, that has imparted to this creature, who is (hardly) ten months old, such (incomparable) wisdom. May that protector of the afflicted (Yourself) be pleased with His own (benevolent) act (the bestowal of wisdom); for who can ever repay His obligations except by joining his palms (out of gratitude)?”

Note: कुर्यात् connects with प्रति to give the meaning of प्रतिकुर्यात् (= प्रत्युपकारं कुर्यात् = प्रत्युपकारं कर्तुं शक्नुयात्) = “can repay”.

कुर्यात् is derived from the धातुः √कृ (तनादि-गणः, डुकृञ् करणे, धातु-पाठः # ८. १०)

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √कृ-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √कृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √कृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√कृ” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √कृ-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is विधिलिँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्ययः is “तिप्”।

(1) कृ + लिँङ् । By 3-3-161 विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्, the affix लिङ् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of command, direction, invitation, request, inquiry and entreaty.

(2) कृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) कृ + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) कृ + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) कृ + त् । 3-4-100 इतश्च, the ending letter (इकारः) of a इकारान्तः (ending in a इकारः) परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः which came in the place of a ङित्-लकारः, is elided.

(6) कृ + यासुट् त् । By 3-4-103 यासुट् परस्मैपदेषूदात्तो ङिच्च, the परस्मैपदम् affixes of लिँङ् get यासुट् as an augment, and this augment is उदात्तः and a ङित्। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the यासुट्-आगमः before the प्रत्यय:।

(7) कृ + यास् त् । The उकार: in यासुट् is for pronunciation only (उच्चारणार्थम्)। The टकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) कृ + यात् । By 7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्‍त्‍यस्‍य, the सकारः of a सार्वधातुक-लिङ् affix is elided, provided it is not the final letter of the affix.

(9) कृ + उ + यात् । By 3-1-79 तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः signifying the agent follows, the affix “उ” is placed after the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) and also after a verbal root belonging to the तनादि-गणः। “उ” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्द्धधातुकं शेषः

(10) कर् + उ + यात् । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows. By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (“अ”, “इ”, “उ”) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ (“र्”, “ल्”) letter.
Note: Since यासुट् is a ङित् (by 3-4-103 यासुट् परस्मैपदेषूदात्तो ङिच्च), 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेश: for the उकार: which would have taken place by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(11) कुर् + उ + यात् । By 6-4-110 अत उत्‌ सार्वधातुके, when √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) ends in the “उ”-प्रत्यय: and is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, then there is a substitution of उकारः in place of the अकारः (which is a result of गुणादेशः) of √कृ।

(12) कुर्यात् । By 6-4-109 ये च, the उकारः of a प्रत्ययः following the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे, # ८. १०) takes लोप: (elision), when followed by an affix beginning with a यकारः।

Note: 8-2-79 न भकुर्छुराम् prevents the दीर्घादेशः (elongation) of the उपधा (उकारः) of the अङ्गम् “कुर्” that would have been done by 8-2-77 हलि च


1. Where has 6-4-109 ये च been used in Chapter Three of the गीता?

2. Can you spot a “श्यन्”-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

3. Where has 7-2-113 हलि लोपः been used in the verse?

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-4-100 इतश्च (used in step 5 of this example), the काशिका says – परस्मैपदेषु इत्येव, अपचावहि। Please explain.

5. Where has the “अदस्” प्रातिपदिकम् been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“How may I return this favor?” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “उपकार” for “favor” and use the अव्ययम् “कथम्” for “how.”

Easy questions:

1. Which intervening letter prevented the नकार: in भवादृशेन from being substituted by a णकार:?

2. Can you spot a “क”-आदेश: in the verse?

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October 2011