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Daily Archives: October 13, 2011

विधुनोति 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form विधुनोति 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb12-12-47.

सङ्कीर्त्यमानो भगवाननन्तः श्रुतानुभावो व्यसनं हि पुंसाम् ।
प्रविश्य चित्तं विधुनोत्यशेषं यथा तमोऽर्कोऽभ्रमिवातिवातः ।। १२-१२-४७ ।।

Gita Press translation “Entering the mind of men (even) while His name or praise is being loudly chanted or when His glory is heard of (by them), the infinite Lord, the wise declare, puts an end to all their misfortune in the same way as the sun dispels darkness and a tempestuous gale dispenses the clouds.”

धुनोति is derived from the धातुः √धु (स्वादि-गणः, धुञ् कम्पने, धातु-पाठः # ५. ९)

Since “धुञ्” has ञकारः as a इत् in the धातु-पाठः, as per 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √धु-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √धु-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः। In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √धु-धातुः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √धु-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) धु + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) धु + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) धु + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) धु + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) धु + श्नु + ति । By 3-1-73 स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः, the श्नु-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots of the स्वादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌

(6) धु + नु + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: By 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the नु-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत् (behaves like having a ङकारः as an इत्)। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेशः for the उकार: (of the अङ्गम् “धु”) which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(7) धुनोति । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

“वि” is the उपसर्ग: (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
वि + धुनोति = विधुनोति।


1. In the last ten verses of Chapter Five of the गीता, can you spot a तिङन्तं पदम् in which the “श्नु”-प्रत्यय: has been used and the विवक्षा (as in this example) is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्?

2. Which term used in the verse gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-38 तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्तिः?

3. The word पुंसाम् (षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्) used in this verse is derived from the प्रातिपदिकम् “पुम्स्”। Can you recall a सूत्रम् in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions the प्रातिपदिकम् “पुम्स्”? Why did that सूत्रम् not apply in the form पुंसाम्?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The moon dispels the darkness of the night.” Use √धु (स्वादि-गणः, धुञ् कम्पने, धातु-पाठः # ५. ९) with the उपसर्ग: “वि” for “to dispel” and use a word from the verse for “darkness.”

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Wind blows away the pollen of flowers.” Use (in the plural) the masculine/feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “रेणु” for “pollen.” Use the same धातु:/उपसर्ग: (as in the question above) for “to blow away.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“O Lord! (Please) remove my ignorance.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “अज्ञान” for “ignorance.” Use the same धातु:/उपसर्ग: (as in the question above) for “to remove.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः been used in the verse?

2. Can you spot a उकारादेश: (letter “उ” as a substitute) in the verse?

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