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आचिनुते 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form आचिनुते 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb4-29-78.

सति कर्मण्यविद्यायां बन्धः कर्मण्यनात्मन: ।। ४-२९-७८।।

Gita Press translation “When a Jīva resorts to actions again and again, thinking of the pleasures enjoyed (by it) through the senses, it is bound by such actions of the body so long as they continue to be performed by it through ignorance.”

चिनुते is derived from the धातुः √चि (स्वादि-गणः, चिञ् चयने, धातु-पाठः # ५. ५)

Since “चिञ्” has ञकारः as a इत् in the धातु-पाठः, as per 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √चि-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √चि-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः। In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √चि-धातुः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √चि-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “त”।

(1) चि + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2 चि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) चि + त । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “त” as the substitute for the लकारः। “त” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) चि + ते । By 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे, the टि-भागः of a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has टकार: as a इत्), gets एकारः as the replacement.

(5) चि + श्नु + ते । By 3-1-73 स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः, the श्नु-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots of the स्वादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌
Note: By 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the श्नु-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत् (behaves like having a ङकारः as an इत्)। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेशः for the इकार: (of the अङ्गम् “चि”) which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः। Similarly, by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the ते-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत्। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेशः for the उकार: (of the अङ्गम् “चिनु”) which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(6) चिनुते । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

“आङ्” (ending ङकार: is a इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्) is the उपसर्ग: (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)।
आ + चिनुते = आचिनुते।


1. In the first verse of which chapter of the गीता has 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in a कर्तरि प्रयोग:?

2. What would have been the final form in this example if a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय: had been used?

3. Would have been the final form in this example if the विवक्षा had been कर्मणि (instead of कर्तरि)?

4. Can you spot a “शि”-आदेश: in the verse?

5. Can you spot a “याट्”-आगम: in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“There is (exists) no end to (of) the merit of one who studies the गीता everyday.” Use √इ (इङ् अध्ययने (नित्यमधिपूर्वः) २. ४१) with the उपसर्ग: “अधि” for “to study”, use √विद् (विदँ सत्तायाम् ४. ६७) for “to exist”, use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “समाप्ति” for “end” and the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “पुण्य” for “merit.” Use अनुदिनम् as an adverb for “every day.” (literally “day after day.”) Use the appropriate forms of the pronouns “यद्” and “तद्”।

Easy questions:

1. By which सूत्रम् does पाणिनि: define the टि-सञ्ज्ञा (referred to in the सूत्रम् 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे)?

2. Where has 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि been used in the verse?

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