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वितुदन्ति 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form वितुदन्ति 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb4-6-47.

पृथग्धियः कर्मदृशो दुराशयाः परोदयेनार्पितहृद्रुजोऽनिशम् ।
परान्दुरुक्तैर्वितुदन्त्यरुन्तुदास्तान्मा वधीद्दैववधान्भवद्विधः ।। ४-६-४७ ।।

Gita Press translation “Let not one (an exalted soul) like You kill them whose mind perceives diversity and whose eyes are fixed on the ritual, nay, who have a malignant mind and whose heart is ever burning (with jealously) at the sight of others’ prosperity and who, being naturally disposed to hurt others’ feelings, prick them with abusive words, and are (thus already) doomed by Providence.”

तुदन्ति is derived from the धातुः √तुद् (तुदादि-गणः, तुदँ व्यथने, धातु-पाठः # ६. १)

In the धातु-पाठः, the √तुद्-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the अकार: following the दकार:। This इत् letter has a स्वरित-स्वर:। Therefore, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √तुद्-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √तुद्-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √तुद् will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √तुद्-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) तुद् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) तुद् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) तुद् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) तुद् + श + झि । By 3-1-77 तुदादिभ्यः शः, the श-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots of the तुदादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌

(5) तुद् + अ + झि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। See question 2.

(6) तुद + अन्ति । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः, “अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(7) तुदन्ति । एकादेश: by 6-1-97 अतो गुणे

“वि” is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे।)
वि + तुदन्ति = वितुदन्ति।


1. In the last verse of which chapter of the गीता has 3-1-77 तुदादिभ्यः शः been used?

2. Why didn’t the उकार: of the अङ्गम् “तुद्” takes the गुणादेश: (by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च) after step 5?

3. The word कर्मदृश: used in this verse is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् “कर्मदृश्”। What would be the form for पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्?
i. कर्मदृक् / कर्मदृग्
ii. कर्मदृट् / कर्मदृड्
iii. कर्मदृश्
iv. कर्मदृश:

4. Which अव्ययम् used in the verse has been translated to “ever”?

5. Where has 6-4-77 अचि श्नुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Why do you always pierce me with abusive words?” Use the same verbal root as in the example and some other words from the verse. Use the अव्ययम् “कस्मात्” for “why.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः been used in the verse?

2. What would have been the final form in this example if a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय: had been used?

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