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प्रहिण्वन्ति 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form प्रहिण्वन्ति 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-49-23.

पुष्णाति यानधर्मेण स्वबुद्ध्या तमपण्डितम् ।
तेऽकृतार्थं प्रहिण्वन्ति प्राणा रायः सुतादयः ।। १०-४९-२३ ।।

Gita Press translation “Life, riches and sons etc., that a man nourishes through unrighteousness under the (false) notion that they are his own (ultimately) forsake the stupid fellow for good (even) when he (feels that he) has not yet accomplished his purpose (the enjoyment of pleasures.)”

हिन्वन्ति is derived from the धातुः √हि (स्वादि-गणः, हि गतौ वृद्धौ च, धातु-पाठः # ५. १२)

In the धातु-पाठः, “हि” does not have any इत् letter. Thus it is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √हि-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √हि-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) हि + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) हि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हि + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) हि + श्नु + झि । By 3-1-73 स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः, the श्नु-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots of the स्वादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌

(5) हि + नु + झि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: By 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the नु-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत् (behaves like having a ङकारः as an इत्)। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेशः for the इकार: (of the अङ्गम् “हि”) which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः। Similarly, by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the झि-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत्। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेशः for the उकार: (of the अङ्गम् “हिनु”) which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(6) हि + नु + अन्ति । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः, “अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(7) हिन्वन्ति । By 6-4-87 हुश्नुवोः सार्वधातुके, वकारः is the replacement for the उकारः of the √हु-धातुः or for the उकारः at the end of an अङ्गम् that is अनेकाच् (has more than one vowel) and ends in the श्नु-प्रत्यय:, provided
i) a conjunct consonant does not precede the उकारः।
ii) a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः beginning with a vowel follows the उकारः।

Note: “प्र” has been used as a उपसर्ग:। – ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे
प्र + हिन्वन्ति = प्रहिण्वन्ति। See question 2.


1. In which तिङन्तं पदम् in the गीता has the “श्नु” गण-विकरण: been used with a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:?

2. In the अष्टाध्यायी, the rules which prescribe णत्वम् (substitution of णकार: in place of a नकार:) can be found in the section from 8-4-1 to 8-4-33. Can you find a सूत्रम् in that section which is required for the णत्वम् in प्रहिण्वन्ति? (Hint: पाणिनि: specifically mentioned the term “हिनु” in that सूत्रम्।)

3. Can you recall a सूत्रम् (which we have studied) which prescribes णत्वम् based on a निमित्तम् in a उपसर्ग: (such as “प्र”)? Why couldn’t this सूत्रम् be used to justify the णत्वम् in प्रहिण्वन्ति?

4. Which सूत्रम् used in the steps in this example belongs to the “असिद्धवत्” अधिकार:?

5. Where has 8-3-14 रो रि been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Go (having gone) to the garden, collect flowers.” Use the अव्ययम् “गत्वा” for “having gone”, use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “आराम” for “garden” and use √चि (चिञ् चयने ५. ५) for “to collect.”

Easy questions:

1. In the verse, can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which ends in a ऐकार:?

2. Where has 7-3-109 जसि च been used in the verse?

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