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हिन्वन्ति 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form हिन्वन्ति 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-77-32.

यत्पादसेवोर्जितयात्मविद्यया हिन्वन्त्यनाद्यात्मविपर्ययग्रहम् ।
लभन्त आत्मीयमनन्तमैश्वरं कुतो नु मोहः परमस्य सद्गतेः ।। १०-७७-३२ ।।

Gita Press translation “The greatest of sages worship the lotus-like feet of Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa and thereby attain the knowledge of the Self, which roots out ignorance existing from time without beginning in the form of identification of the self with the body and gain infinite spiritual glory. How can the Lord, who is the sole refuge of such sages, be subject to delusion?”

हिन्वन्ति is derived from the धातुः √हि (स्वादि-गणः, हि गतौ वृद्धौ च, धातु-पाठः # ५. १२)

In the धातु-पाठः, “हि” does not have any इत् letter. Thus it is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √हि-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √हि-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:।

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, therefore the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) हि + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) हि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हि + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) हि + श्नु + झि । By 3-1-73 स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः, the श्नु-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots of the स्वादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌

(5) हि + नु + झि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: By 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the नु-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत् (behaves like having a ङकारः as an इत्)। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेशः for the इकार: (of the अङ्गम् “हि”) which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः। Similarly, by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्, the झि-प्रत्यय: becomes ङिद्वत्। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेशः for the उकार: (of the अङ्गम् “हिनु”) which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(6) हि + नु + अन्ति । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः, “अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(7) हिन्वन्ति । By 6-4-87 हुश्नुवोः सार्वधातुके, वकारः is the replacement for the उकारः of the √हु-धातुः or for the उकारः at the end of an अङ्गम् that is अनेकाच् (has more than one vowel) and ends in the श्नु-प्रत्यय:, provided
i) a conjunct consonant does not precede the उकारः।
ii) a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः beginning with a vowel follows the उकारः।


1. Where has the “श्नु”-प्रत्यय: been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-87 हुश्नुवोः सार्वधातुके, the काशिका says – असंयोगपूर्वस्य इत्येव, आप्नुवन्ति। Please explain.

3. Why do we need 6-4-87 हुश्नुवोः सार्वधातुके in step 7? Why not just use 6-1-77 इको यणचि?

4. Where else (besides in हिन्वन्ति) has 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः been used in the verse?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“How can there be an obstacle for one whom the Lord protects.” Use a अव्ययम् form the verse to express the meaning of “How can there be”, use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “विघ्न” for “obstacle”, use √पा (पा रक्षणे २. ५१) for “to protect” and use षष्ठी विभक्ति: to express the meaning “for.” Use the appropriate form of the pronouns “यद्”/”तद्”।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Let the students get (some) rest.” Use the masculine noun “विश्राम” for “rest” and use a verbal root from the verse for “to get.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-3-105 आङि चापः been used in the verse?

2. Why didn’t 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः apply between लभन्त आत्मीयम्?

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