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विद्वद्भिः mIp

Today we will look at the form विद्वद्भिः-mIp from from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb1-1-94.

एकान्तलाभं वचसो नु पुंसां सुश्लोकमौलेर्गुणवादमाहुः ।
श्रुतेश्च विद्वद्भिरुपाकृतायां कथासुधायामुपसम्प्रयोगम् ।। ३-६-३७ ।।

Gita Press translation “The wise declare that the sole utility of men’s speech decidedly lies in uttering the praises of the Lord, who is the foremost of those enjoying the highest renown, and that the sole utility of one’s ears lies in their coming into touch with the nectar-like discourses on Śrī Hari, delivered by learned men.”

The प्रातिपदिकम् “विद्वस्” is formed from the धातु: “विद्” using the शतृँ-प्रत्यय:। The शतृँ-प्रत्यय: gets the वसुँ-आदेश: (reference 7-1-36 विदेः शतुर्वसुः।)

‘विद्वस्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च । The विवक्षा here is पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-बहुवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विद्वस्’

(1) विद्वस् + भिस् । अङ्गम् has पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of भिस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) विद्वद् + भिस् । By 8-2-72 वसुस्रंसुध्वंस्वनडुहां दः a term ending in the वसुँ affix that ends in a सकार: at the end of a पदम् gets दकारः as the replacement. As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, the दकार: will replace only the ending सकारः ।

(3) विद्वद्भिः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. When we derived the प्रथमा-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् “अनडुह्” we got the form अनड्वान् which has the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्। At this point, why doesn’t 8-2-72 वसुस्रंसुध्वंस्वनडुहां दः apply to replace the ending नकार: by a दकार:?

2. Which term (besides च) from the चादि-गण: (ref. 1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे) has been used in the verse?

3. What is the alternate form for श्रुते: (षष्ठी-एकवचनम्, स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “श्रुति”)?

4. Why didn’t the सूत्रम् 6-4-131 वसोः सम्प्रसारणम् apply in this example? (Which condition was not satisfied?)

5. Where has the ङि-प्रत्यय: been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“We all listened to the words of the wise man.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “श्रुतवत्/श्रुतवती” to express the past tense “listened.”

7. Please list the two synonyms for the word “सुधा” (प्रातिपदिकम् “सुधा” feminine, meaning “nectar”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
पीयूषममृतं सुधा ।।१-१-४८।।
(इति त्रीणि “अमृतस्य” नामानि)

Advanced question:

1. In commenting on the सूत्रम् 8-2-72 वसुस्रंसुध्वंस्वनडुहां दः, the काशिका says “ससजुषो रुः (8-2-66) इत्यतः सः इति वर्तते, तेन सम्भवात् व्यभिचाराच् च वसुरेव विशेष्यते, न स्रंसुध्वंसू, व्यभिचाराभावात्, असम्भवाच् च न अनडुह्-शब्दः।” Please explain.

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः been used?

2. Derive the form सुश्लोकमौले: (षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “सुश्लोकमौलि” (declined like हरि-शब्द:)।

सर्वथा ind.

Today we will look at the form सर्वथा-ind. from श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता Bg6-31.

सर्वभूतस्थितं यो मां भजत्येकत्वमास्थितः ।
सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि स योगी मयि वर्तते ।। ६-३१ ।।

Translation – “The Yogī who is established in union with Me, and worships Me as residing in all beings (as their very Self), abides in Me; even though performing his duties in every way.”

सर्वथा is formed by adding the थाल्-प्रत्ययः to the प्रातिपदिकम् “सर्व”। (using the सूत्रम् 5-3-23 प्रकारवचने थाल्)।

‘सर्वथा’ gets प्रातिपदिकसञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सर्वथा’
‘सर्वथा’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-38 तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्तिः – the words ending in a तद्धित-प्रत्यय:, after which it is not possible to introduce all of the सुँप्-affixes, are also designated as indeclinables.

(1) सर्वथा + सुँ (default) ।

(2) सर्वथा । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः, the feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after an अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. In which chapter of the गीता is the थाल्-प्रत्ययः used in the first verse?

2. In which section of तद्धिता: does the सूत्रम् 5-3-23 प्रकारवचने थाल् occur?
a) तसिलादयः प्राक् पाशपः ।
b) शस्प्रभृतयः प्राक् समासान्तेभ्यः ।
c) कृत्वोऽर्थाः ।
d) None of the above.

3. Which of the following is an अपवाद: for the थाल्-प्रत्यय:?
a) थमुँ-प्रत्यय: – 5-3-24 इदमस्थमुः ।
b) दा-प्रत्यय: – 5-3-15 सर्वैकान्यकिंयत्तदः काले दा ।
c) त्रल्-प्रत्यय: – 5-3-10 सप्तम्यास्त्रल् ।
d) तसिँल्-प्रत्यय: – 5-3-7 पञ्चम्यास्तसिल् ।

4. Which of the following is NOT in the meaning of “प्रकारवचने”?
a) कथम्
b) क्व
c) इत्थम्
d) तथा

5. Can you spot a नकारान्त-प्रातिपदिकम् used in the verse?

6. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-106 तदोः सः सावनन्त्ययोः been used?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Nothing exists forever.” Use a verb from the verse for “exists”, use “शाश्वतम्” as an adverb for “forever.” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् “किम्” with the अव्ययम् “चित्/चन”।

8. Please list the thirteen synonyms for “सर्वम्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “सर्व” pronoun, meaning “all”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
अथ समं सर्वम् ।।३-१-६४।।
विश्वमशेषं कृत्स्नं समस्तनिखिलाऽखिलानि निःशेषम् ।
समग्रं सकलं पूर्णमखण्डं स्यादनूनके ।।३-१-६५।।
(इति चतुर्द्श “समग्रस्य” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a यण्-आदेश: in the verse?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-132 एतत्तदोः सुलोपोऽकोरनञ्समासे हलि been used?

स्वकृतभुक् mNs

Today we will look at the form स्वकृतभुक्-mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-54-38

मैवास्मान्साध्व्यसूयेथा भ्रातुर्वैरूप्यचिन्तया ।
सुखदुःखदो न चान्योऽस्ति यतः स्वकृतभुक्पुमान् ।। १०-५४-३८ ।।

Gita Press translation “(Turning towards Rukmiṇī,) please do not take offense with us, O good lady, thinking of the disfiguration of your brother. None else is responsible for one’s joy and sorrow; for a man reaps the fruit of his own doings (in the shape of pleasurable and painful experiences).”

‘स्वकृतभुज्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्वकृतभुज्’

(1) स्वकृतभुज् + सुँ ।

(2) स्वकृतभुज् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) स्वकृतभुज् । सकार-लोपः by 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्। Using 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् स्वकृतभुज् gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

(4) स्वकृतभुग् । By 8-2-30 चोः कुः, the consonants of the च-वर्ग: (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्) get the consonants of the क-वर्ग: (क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्) as a replacement when they occur at the end of a पदम् or when they are followed by a झल् letter.

(5) स्वकृतभुग् / स्वकृतभुक् । By 8-4-56 वाऽवसाने, a झल् letter is optionally replaced by a चर् letter when nothing follows.

Questions:

1. In the verse, can you spot a word that has taken the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-38 तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्तिः?

2. Find four सूत्राणि from the “6-1-84 एकः पूर्वपरयोः” अधिकार: that have been used in this verse.

3. We have studied another सूत्रम् (besides 8-2-30 चोः कुः) that prescribes a क-वर्गादेश:। Which one is it?

4. Just as in this example, where in Chapter Ten of the गीता has the सूत्रम् 8-2-30 चोः कुः been used to change a letter of the च-वर्ग: occurring at the end of a पदम् to the corresponding letter of the क-वर्ग:?

5. Can you spot a असुँङ्-आदेश: in the verse?

6. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-107 अम्बाऽर्थनद्योर्ह्रस्वः been used?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Where there is righteousness, there there is happiness.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “धर्म” for “righteousness”, use a verb from the verse for “is.”

8. Please list the three synonyms for the word “साध्वी” (प्रातिपदिकम् “साध्वी” feminine, meaning “virtuous woman/faithful wife”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
सुचरित्रा तु सती साध्वी पतिव्रता ।।२-६-६।।
(इति चत्वारि “पतिसेवातत्पराया:” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Derive the form वैरूप्यचिन्तया (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) from the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “वैरूप्यचिन्ता”। (Use 7-3-105 आङि चापः)।

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-114 हशि च been used?

पन्थानम् mAs

Today we will look at the form पन्थानम्-mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 6-5-21.

इति व्यवसिता राजन्हर्यश्वा एकचेतसः ।
प्रययुस्तं परिक्रम्य पन्थानमनिवर्तनम् ।। ६-५-२१ ।।

Gita Press translation “Thus resolved, O king (Parīkṣit), the Haryaśwas, who were (all) of one mind, went round the sage (from left to right, as a mark of respect) and took to the path (leading to God-Realization) which does not bring one back to the mortal plane.”

‘पथिन्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पथिन्’

(1) पथिन् + अम् । ‘अम्’ is a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix by 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of अम् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(2) पथ् अन् + अम् । By 7-1-86 इतोऽत्‌ सर्वनामस्थाने, the इकारः of पथिन्, मथिन् and ऋभुक्षिन् gets अकारः as replacement when they are followed by a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix.

(3) पन्थ् अन् + अम् । By 7-1-87 थो न्थः, the थकारः of पथिन् and मथिन् gets न्थ् as replacement when they are followed by a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix.

(4) पन्थानम् । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ, the penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in a नकार: gets elongated if it is followed by a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix.

Questions:

1. Can you spot a word in the verse which gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः?

2. Where is the प्रातिपदिकम् “पथिन्” used in Chapter 6 of the गीता?

3. Which term from the चादि-गण: (ref. 1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे) has been used in the verse?

4. The पदच्छेद: of the सूत्रम् 7-1-87 थो न्थः is थ:, न्थ:। So there are two letters “अ” in the सूत्रम्। The first one is in “थ:” and the second in “न्थ:”। Which one of these is उच्चारणार्थम् (for the sake of pronunciation only)?
a) The first one is उच्चारणार्थम्, the second one is not.
b) The second one is उच्चारणार्थम्, the first one is not.
c) Both are उच्चारणार्थम्।
d) Neither is उच्चारणार्थम्।

5. The सुँट्-प्रत्याहार: (used in the सूत्रम् 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य) is a subset of the सुँप्-प्रत्याहार:। Can you recall another प्रत्याहार: (which पाणिनि: has used) that is also a subset of the सुँप्-प्रत्याहार:?

6. Which प्रातिपदिकम् from the सर्वादि-गण: (ref. 1-1-27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि) has been used in this verse?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“We have resolved to read the Gita everyday.” Use a word from the verse for “have resolved”, use the अव्ययम् “पठितुम्” for “to read” and the अव्ययम् “प्रतिदिनम्” for “everyday.”

8. The अमरकोश: gives eleven synonyms for the word पन्था: (प्रतिपदिकम् “पथिन्” masculine, meaning “path.”) We have seen these in prior examples. Which of the following is NOT a synonym of पन्था:?
a) वर्तनी
b) पद्धतिः
c) अटवी
d) सरणिः

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-19 लोपः शाकल्यस्य been used in the verse?

2. Why didn’t the ending नकार: of (हे) राजन् drop by 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य?

अमूनि nAp

Today we will look at the form अमूनि-nAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb1-17-40.

अमूनि पञ्च स्थानानि ह्यधर्मप्रभवः कलिः ।
औत्तरेयेण दत्तानि न्यवसत्तन्निदेशकृत् ।। १-१७-४० ।।

Gita Press translation “In obedience to the king’s command Kali, the progenitor of unrighteousness, occupied these five abodes assigned by Parīkṣit (the son of Uttarā).”

‘अदस्’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् and सर्वनाम-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि । The विवक्षा here is नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अदस्’

(1) अदस् + शस् ।

(2) अदस् + शि । By 7-1-20 जश्शसोः शिः, the affixes जस् and शस् get शि as the replacement when they follow a neuter अङ्गम्। As per 1-1-42 शि सर्वनामस्थानम्, the affix शि gets the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।

(3) अद अ + शि । By 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः, अदस् gets the अकारादेशः । As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending सकार: gets replaced.

(4) अद + शि । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे, the अकारः at the end of “अद” and the following अकारादेशः is replaced by अकारः (पररूपम्) as एकादेशः ।

(5) अद नुँम् + शि । By 7-1-72 नपुंसकस्य झलचः, when a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix follows, the neuter bases that end in a झल् letter or an अच् (vowel) get the नुँम् augment. As per 1-1-47 मिदचोऽन्त्यात्परः, an augment with मकारः as the इत् letter attaches itself after last vowel of the term to which it is prescribed.

(6) अदन् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) अदान् + इ । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ, the penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in a नकार: gets elongated if it is followed by a non-vocative affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।

(8) अमूनि । By 8-2-80 अदसोऽसेर्दादु दो मः, there is a substitution of उकार:/ऊकार: in place of the letter (vowel) following the दकार: of “अदस्” and the दकार: gets substituted by मकार:। This rule does not apply when there is a सकार: at the end of “अदस्”।

Note: As per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः, there will an उकार: substitution if the vowel following the दकार: is ह्रस्व: (short) and there will an ऊकार: substitution if the vowel following the दकार: is दीर्घ: (long.)

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् been used in this verse?

2. Which term from the चादि-गण: has been used? (Ref. 1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे)।

3. Which ones from the प्रादि-गण: have been used? Do they have the उपसर्ग-सञ्ज्ञा here? (Ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः, 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)।

4. Where has the अदस्-प्रातिपदिकम् been used in Chapter 16 of the गीता?

5. What would have been the final form in this example if the gender were masculine?

6. Which term used in the verse has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“For five years, my brother lived in that village over there.” Use the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “अदस्” for “that over there”, use a verb from the verse for “lived.”

8. The अमरकोश: gives five synonyms for the word आज्ञा (प्रातिपदिकम् “आज्ञा” feminine, meaning “command.”) One of them is the word निदेशः (प्रातिपदिकम् “निदेश” masculine) used in this verse. Please list the other four.
अववादस्तु निर्देशो निदेशः शासनं च सः ।।२-८-२५।।
शिष्टिश्चाज्ञा च ।।२-८-२६।।
(इति षट् “आज्ञाया:” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् has been used in हि + अधर्मप्रभवः = ह्यधर्मप्रभवः? Same one has been used in नि + अवसत् = न्यवसत्।

2. Derive the form औत्तरेयेण (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) from the प्रातिपदिकम् “औत्तरेय” (declined like राम-शब्द:)।

धात्री fNs

Today we will look at the form धात्री-fNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-56-21.

तमपूर्वं नरं दृष्ट्वा धात्री चुक्रोश भीतवत् ।
तच्छ्रुत्वाभ्यद्रवत्क्रुद्धो जाम्बवान्बलिनां वरः ।। १०-५६-२१ ।।

Gita Press translation “The nurse shrieked as though afraid to see that wonderful human being (but really on perceiving the latter’s intention to carry the gem away). Enraged to hear the scream, Jāmbavān, the foremost of the mighty, rushed to meet Him.”

The feminine ङीप्-प्रत्ययान्त-शब्दः “धात्री” is formed by adding the ङीप्-प्रत्ययः to the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “धातृ”।

धातृ + ङीप् । By 4-1-5 ऋन्नेभ्यो ङीप्‌, the प्रातिपदिकानि that end in a ऋकारः or नकारः get the ङीप् affix in the feminine gender.
धातृ + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
धात्री । यणादेशः by 6-1-77 इको यणचि

Since धात्री is a ङीप्-प्रत्ययान्त-शब्दः, it can take the affixes listed under the अधिकारः “4-1-1 ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्” । The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the ङीप्-प्रत्ययान्त-शब्दः ‘धात्री’

(1) धात्री + सुँ ।

(2) धात्री + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) धात्री । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्, a single letter affix सुँ, ति or सि is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix “ङी” or “आप्”।

Questions:

1. Which of the following is true with regard to “धात्री”?
a) It has the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा but not the घि-सञ्ज्ञा
b) It has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा but not the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा
c) It has both the घि-सञ्ज्ञा and the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा
d) It has neither the घि-सञ्ज्ञा nor the नदी-सञ्ज्ञा

2. Can you spot two words in the verse which have got the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः?

3. How about one which has got the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-38 तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्तिः?

4. The form बलिनाम् is पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्। Is the प्रातिपदिकम् “बलि” or “बलिन्”?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 4-1-5 ऋन्नेभ्यो ङीप्‌ been used in Chapter 18 of the गीता? (Hint: After the ङीप्-प्रत्यय: is added the declension will follow that of नदी-शब्द:। In Chapter 18 highlight words which are declined like नदी-शब्द:। They will not be many – because the गीता does not have many feminine forms. Among these highlighted words, look for one in which 4-1-5 ऋन्नेभ्यो ङीप्‌ has been used.)

6. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः been used?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Seeing his own mother fainted, the boy shrieked like one terrified.” Use the अव्ययम् “दृष्ट्वा” for “seeing (having seen)”, the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “मूर्च्छित” for “fainted”, use a verb from the verse for “shrieked” and use an अव्ययम् from the verse for “like one terrified.”

8. The अमरकोश: gives three possible meanings for “धात्री” –
धात्री स्यादुपमाताऽपि क्षितिरप्यामलक्यपि ॥३-३-१७६॥
In which meaning has it been used in this verse?

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सुत्रम् 8-4-63 शश्छोऽटि been used in this verse?

2. Derive the form “तम्” (पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) from the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “तद्”। (Use 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः)।

ग्रामण्यः mNp

Today we will look at the form ग्रामण्यः-mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb12-11-48.

उन्नह्यन्ति रथं नागा ग्रामण्यो रथयोजकाः ।
चोदयन्ति रथं पृष्ठे नैर्ऋता बलशालिनः ।। १२-११-४८ ।।

Gita Press translation “The Nagās serve the purpose of keeping the parts of the chariot together; the Yakṣas make his chariot ready for service, while the mighty Rākṣasas push the chariot from behind.”

Note: Normally the प्रातिपदिकम् “ग्रामणी” means “leader of a village.” But in this context, श्रीधर-स्वामी comments ग्रामण्य: = यक्षा:।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ग्रामणी’ is a उपपद-समासः and has been formed with the धातुः “नी” using the क्विप्-प्रत्यय:। ‘ग्रामणी’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ग्रामणी’

(1) ग्रामणी + जस् ।

(2) ग्रामणी + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of जस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(3) ग्रामण्य + अस् । By 6-4-82 एरनेकाचोऽसंयोगपूर्वस्य, if a प्रत्यय: beginning with an अच् (vowel) follows, then the (ending letter of the) अङ्गम् is replaced by a यण् letter in the following situation – If the अङ्गम् is अनेकाच् (has more than one vowel) and ends in a धातु: which ends in the इवर्ण: (long or short इ) and there is no conjunct consonant belonging to the धातु: prior to the इवर्ण:।

(4) ग्रामण्यः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. The नकार: of the धातु: “नी” should not have changed to a णकार:, because the निमित्तम् (the रेफ:) belongs to the पदम् “ग्राम” while the नकार: of “नी” is outside this पदम्। The condition of समानपदे (ref. 8-4-1 रषाभ्यां नो णः समानपदे) has not been satisfied. But पाणिनि: himself has used the word “ग्रामणी” in the अष्टाध्यायी। This can be taken as a ज्ञापकम् (an indication/hint from पाणिनि:) that in the word “ग्रामणी” the नकार: is to be substituted by a णकार:। In which सूत्रम् does पाणिनि: use the word “ग्रामणी”?

2. Why didn’t the सूत्रम् 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः apply in step 3?

3. Why do we need the सूत्रम् 6-4-82 एरनेकाचोऽसंयोगपूर्वस्य? Why not just use the सूत्रम् 6-1-77 इको यणचि like we do in नद्य:?

4. Where in the गीता (chapter ten) do we find a प्रातिपदिकम् – like ग्रामणी – a उपपद-समासः and has been formed with the धातुः “नी” using the क्विप्-प्रत्यय:?

5. This प्रातिपदिकम् (answer to question 4) has been declined षष्ठी-बहुवचनम् in the गीता। But the form is not in accordance with the rules of the अष्टाध्यायी। What would be the form as per the अष्टाध्यायी?

6. In commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-4-82 एरनेकाचोऽसंयोगपूर्वस्य, the काशिका says अनेकाचः इति किम्? नियौ। नियः। Please explain.

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even the leader of the village came to see my son.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “आगत” to express the meaning “came”, use the अव्ययम् “द्रष्टुम्” for “to see.”

8. The अमरकोश: gives fourteen synonyms of the word राक्षस: (प्रातिपदिकम् “राक्षस” masculine, meaning “demon.”) One of them is the word “नैर्ऋत:” (प्रातिपदिकम् “नैर्ऋत” masculine) used in this verse. Please list the other thirteen.
राक्षसः कौणपः क्रव्यात् क्रव्यादोऽस्रप आशरः ।।१-१-५९।।
रात्रिंचरो रात्रिचरः कर्बुरो निकषात्मजः ।
यातुधानः पुण्यजनो नैर्ऋतो यातुरक्षसी ।।१-१-६०।।
(इति पञ्चदश “राक्षसस्य” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Where else (besides in the word ग्रामण्य:) has the जस्-प्रत्यय: been used in the verse?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् been used?

अमुत्र ind.

Today we will look at the form अमुत्र-ind. from श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता Bg6-40.

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।
पार्थ नैवेह नामुत्र विनाशस्तस्य विद्यते ।
न हि कल्याणकृत्कश्चिद्‌ दुर्गतिं तात गच्छति ।। ६-४० ।।

Gita Press translation “Śrī Bhagavān said: Dear Arjuna, there is no fall for him either here or hereafter. For none who strives for self-redemption (i.e., God-realization) ever meets with evil destiny.”

अमुत्र is formed by adding त्रल्-प्रत्ययः to अदस्-प्रातिपदिकम् (using the सूत्रम् 5-3-10 सप्तम्यास्त्रल्)।

‘अमुत्र’ gets प्रातिपदिकसञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अमुत्र’
‘अमुत्र’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-38 तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्तिः – the words ending in a तद्धित-प्रत्यय:, after which it is not possible to introduce all of the सुँप्-affixes, are also designated as indeclinables.

(1) अमुत्र + सुँ ।

(2) अमुत्र । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः, the feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after an अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. In which section of तद्धिता: does the सूत्रम् 5-3-10 सप्तम्यास्त्रल् occur?
a) तसिलादयः प्राक् पाशपः ।
b) शस्प्रभृतयः प्राक् समासान्तेभ्यः ।
c) कृत्वोऽर्थाः ।
d) None of the above.

2. Can you spot another word used in the verse, which gets the अव्यय-सज्ञा by 1-1-38 तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्तिः?

3. Which term from the स्वरादिगण: (ref. 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्) has been used in the verse?

4. Which one from the चादिगण: (ref. 1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे) has been used?

5. The त्रल्-प्रत्ययः has been used in the last verse of which chapter of the गीता?

6. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् been used in the verse?

7. How would you say this in the Sanskrit?
“This सूत्रम् is not there in the first chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी ।”
Use a verb from the verse for “is there.”

8. The अमरकोश: gives three synonyms for the word “नरक:/नरकम्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “नरक” masculine/neuter, meaning “hell.”) One of them is दुर्गति: (प्रातिपदिकम् “दुर्गति” feminine) used in this verse. Please list the other two.
स्यान्नारकस्तु नरको निरयो दुर्गतिः स्त्रियाम् ।।१-९-१।।

Easy question:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-88 वृद्धिरेचि been used in the verse?

2. Where has the ङस्-प्रत्यय: been used?

नॄणाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form नॄणाम्-mGp from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् ।

राक्षसेन्द्रसुतासाधो पारुष्यं त्यज गौरवात् ।
कुले यद्यप्यहं जातो रक्षसां क्रूरकर्मणाम् ।
गुणो यः प्रथमो नॄणां तन्मे शीलमराक्षसम् ।। ६-८७-१९ ।।

Gita Press translation “Give up harshness of speech in view of my seniority, O impious son of Rāvaṇa (the ruler of ogres)! Even though I was born in the race of ogres of cruel deeds, my disposition, consisting as it does of Sattva or goodness, the foremost virtue of human beings, is not ogre-like”

‘नृ’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्। The विवक्षा here is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नृ’

(1) नृ + आम् ।

(2) नृ + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट्, the affix “आम्” takes the augment नुँट् when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-संज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix “आप्”। By the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the नुँट्-आगम: will join at the beginning of “आम्”।

(3) नृ + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। See easy question 1.

(4) नॄनाम् । By 6-4-6 नृ च, the ऋकारः of “नृ” is elongated optionally when followed by the affix “नाम्”।

(5) नॄणाम् । By the वार्त्तिकम् (under 8-4-1 रषाभ्यां नो णः समानपदे) – ऋवर्णान्नस्य णत्वं वाच्यम्, णकारः shall be ordained in the place of the नकारः after the vowel ऋ also (along-side the रेफः and षकारः).

Questions:

1. In the absence of 6-4-6 नृ च, which सूत्रम् would have applied in step 4?

2. There are two final forms possible in this example. One is “नॄणाम्” as shown above. Which is the other one?

3. Where is the प्रातिपदिकम् “नृ” used in Chapter 7 of the गीता?

4. Besides the प्रातिपदिकम् “नृ”, there is also another (more common) प्रातिपदिकम् “नर” which also means “a man.” Which form appears in the declension table of both?

5. Can you spot an अव्ययम् in the verse?

6. Why didn’t 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः apply in the form क्रूरकर्मणाम् ?

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Pride (is) the cause of downfall, therefore give it up.” Use a verb from the verse for “give up”, use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “गर्व” for “pride” and the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “पतन” for “downfall.” Use the अव्ययम् “तस्मात्” for “therefore.”

8. Please state the one synonym for the word “पारुष्यम्” (प्रातिपदिकम् “पारुष्य” neuter, meaning “harshness of speech”) as given in the अमरकोश:।
पारुष्यमतिवादः स्यात् ।।१-६-१४।।
(इति द्वे “अप्रियवचस:” नामनी)

Easy questions:

1. In step 3, why didn’t the ending मकार: of the प्रत्यय: get the इत्-सज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् ?

2. Please list the steps in the derivation of असाधु + सुँ (सम्बुद्धि:) = असाधो । The gender here is masculine.

तीर्त्वा ind.

Today we will look at the form तीर्त्वा-ind. from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् ।

ते वनेन वनं गत्वा नदीस्तीर्त्वा बहूदकाः ।। १-१-३० ।।
चित्रकूटमनुप्राप्य भरद्वाजस्य शासनात् ।

Gita Press translation “Going from forest to forest, and crossing streams containing deep water, they (saw the sage Bharadwāja at Prayāga and, dismissing Guha there) later on reached Citrakūṭa according to the instructions of Bharadwāja.”

“तीर्त्वा” is a क्त्वा-प्रत्ययान्त-शब्दः formed from the धातुः “तॄ”। The क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is prescribed by 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले

‘तीर्त्वा’ gets प्रातिपदिकसञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टा… mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तीर्त्वा’
By 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः , the words ending in the affixes क्त्वा, तोसुन् and कसुन्, are also designated as indeclinables. Since ‘तीर्त्वा’ is an अव्ययम्, it will only take the default सुँ-प्रत्यय:।

(1) तीर्त्वा + सुँ ।

(2) तीर्त्वा । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः, the feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after an अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Which two other (besides तीर्त्वा) words used in the verse, get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः?

2. When we discussed this verse in the class, we discovered that the commentators have given two ways of doing पदच्छेद: of “तेवनेन”। One way is shown above as “ते + वनेन”। Geeta Press has also translated according to this पदच्छेद:। Do you recall the other possibility of doing पदच्छेद: here?

3. Which of the following is true of the तोसुन्-प्रत्यय: and the कसुन्-प्रत्यय:? (These are referred to in the सूत्रम् 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः)।
a) They are used only भाषायाम् (in Classical Sanskrit)
b) They are used only छन्दसि (in the वेद:)
c) They are used both भाषायाम् and छन्दसि
d) They are used neither भाषायाम् nor छन्दसि

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः been used?

5. In commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः, the तत्त्वबोधिनी-टीका says – “ण्यक्षत्रियार्षे’ति सूत्राल्लुगत्रानुवर्तते”। Please explain what this means.

6. Which terms from the प्रादि-गण: have been used in this verse? Do they have the उपसर्ग-सञ्ज्ञा here? (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः, 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)।

7. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“According to the instruction of his own father, Sri Rama went to the forest.” Use the सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् “स्व” to express the meaning of “his own”, use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “गतवत्” to express the meaning “went.”

8. The अमरकोश: gives five synonyms for the word आज्ञा (प्रातिपदिकम् “आज्ञा” feminine, meaning “command.”) One of them is the word शासनम् (प्रातिपदिकम् “शासन” neuter) used in this verse. Please list the other four.
अववादस्तु निर्देशो निदेशः शासनं च सः ।।२-८-२५।।
शिष्टिश्चाज्ञा च ।।२-८-२६।।
(इति षट् “आज्ञाया:” नामानि)

Easy questions:

1. Derive the forms भरद्वाजस्य (षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) and शासनात् (पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्) using the सूत्रम् 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः।

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-17 जसः शी been used?

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