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शृणोति 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form शृणोति 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4-21-10.

को न्वस्य कीर्तिं न शृणोत्यभिज्ञो यद्विक्रमोच्छिष्टमशेषभूपाः ।
लोकाः सपाला उपजीवन्ति काममद्यापि तन्मे वद कर्म शुद्धम् ।। ४-२१-१० ।।

Gita Press translation “What knowing man would not hear the glory of king Pṛthu; for it is the remains of whatever was achieved by his valor that all the (so-called) rulers of the earth as well as the different worlds and their gaurdian deities enjoy to their heart’s content even to this day. Therefore, pray, tell (me more of) his faultless doings.”

शृणोति is derived from the धातुः √श्रु (भ्वादि-गणः, श्रु श्रवणे, धातु-पाठः #१. १०९२)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √श्रु-धातुः has no इत् letters. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √श्रु-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √श्रु-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) श्रु + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) श्रु + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) श्रु + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) शृ + श्नु + ति । By 3-1-74 श्रुवः शृ च, the श्नु-प्रत्ययः is placed after the verbal root √श्रु (श्रु श्रवणे १. १०९२), when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. Simultaneously, “श्रु” takes the substitution “शृ”। श्नु which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113.

(5) शृ + नु + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) शृ + नो + ति। By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.
Note: The प्रत्यय: “नु” is ङिद्वत् by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्। Therefore 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 from performing the गुण: substitution for the ऋकार: of “शृ”।

(7) शृणोति । By वार्त्तिकम् (under 8-4-1) – ऋवर्णान्नस्य णत्वं वाच्यम् – णकारः shall be ordained in the place of the नकारः after the vowel ऋ also (along-side the रेफः and षकारः)।


1. Where the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य been used in the verse?

2. Where has the हि-प्रत्यय: been used in the verse?

3. Can you spot a विधि-लिङ् form of √श्रु in the Eighteenth Chapter of the गीता?

4. Which अव्ययम् used in the verse translates to “to their heart’s content”?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Look at these wonderful birds sporting in the garden.” Use √दृश् (दृशिर् प्रेक्षणे १. ११४३) for “to see/look”, the adjective “अद्भुत” for “wonderful”, the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “पक्षिन्” for “bird” and the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “क्रीडत्” (ending in the शतृँ-प्रत्यय:) for “sporting.”

Advanced question:

1. यदि “श्रु” धातो: भ्वादिपाठे सत्यपि “३-१-७४ श्रुवः शृ च” इत्यनेन नित्यं श्नु-विकरण: स्यात् तर्ह्यस्य भ्वादिपाठोऽनर्थक: स्यात्, तथा सति स्वादावेवेमं पठेत्।
The धातु: √श्रु has been included in the भ्वादि-गण: (by पाणिनि:) but at the same time it always takes “श्नु” as the विकरण-प्रत्यय: (instead of the default “शप्”) by 3-1-74 श्रुवः शृ च। So then it looks like it makes no sense to include √श्रु in the भ्वादि-गण:। This being the case it should be included in the स्वादि-गण:। (It would then automatically take “श्नु” as the विकरण-प्रत्यय: by 3-1-73 स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः)।
The answer to this dilemma is given by the learned commentator as follows:
सत्यप्येवं यदयमाचार्य: भ्वादौ पठति, श्नुप्रत्ययं च विदधाति, तेन “न नित्य: श्नु-विकरण:” इति ज्ञापयति। तथा सति “श्रवति” इत्यादयोऽपि भौवादिका: प्रयोगा: द्रष्टव्या:। (ऋग्वेदे शप्-विकरणो बहुत्र श्रूयते)। Please explain.

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-4-45 यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा been used in the verse?

2. Which term used in the verse has the घि-सञ्ज्ञा?

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