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तयोः mGd

Today we will look at the form तयोः from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् ।

तयोस्तद्वचनं श्रुत्वा प्रहस्य मुनिपुङ्गवः |
अब्रवीच्छ्रूयतां राम यस्यायं पूर्व आश्रमः || १-२३-९||

Gita Press translation “Hearing the aforesaid submission of the two brothers, Viśwāmitra (the foremost of hermits ) heartily laughed and said, “Hear, O Rāma, of him whose former residence this is.””

‘तद्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् and सर्वनाम-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि । The विवक्षा here is षष्ठी-द्विवचनम् । 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तद्’

(1) तद् + ओस् ।

(2) त अ + ओस् । By 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः , तद् gets the अकारादेशः । As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य , only the ending दकार: gets replaced.

(3) त + ओस् । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे the अकारः at the end of त and the following अकारादेशः is replaced by अ (पररूपम्) as एकादेशः ।

(4) ते + ओस् । By 7-3-104 ओसि च , the ending अ of a प्रातिपदिकम् changes to ए when followed by the affix ओस् ।

(5) तयोस् । अयादेशः by 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(6) तयोः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. The अमर-कोश: gives seven main words which are used as the second member of a compound in the sense of “foremost.” In this verse we have one of them “पुङ्गवः” which literally means “bull”, but “मुनिपुङ्गवः” means “the foremost of hermits.” These can only be used in the masculine.
Please list the other six.
स्युरुत्तरपदे व्याघ्रपुङ्गवर्षभकुञ्जराः।
सिंहशार्दूलनागाऽऽद्याः पुंसि श्रेष्ठाऽर्थगोचराः॥३-१-५९॥

2. Of the seven words listed above – which ones are used in the गीता?

3. Where has सम्बुद्धि: been used in this verse? By which सूत्रम् does पाणिनि: define सम्बुद्धि: ?

4. As we have seen in previous examples, the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is used when we have the same doer doing two actions. The verbal root in the earlier action takes the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: . (The सूत्रम् is 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले । If there is a compound formation then the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is replaced by ल्यप् as per 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् ) . Please identify the word ending in the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: and the ल्यप्-प्रत्यय: in this verse. Who is the common doer and which is his later action?

5. Why wasn’t 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः applied between पूर्व + आश्रमः ?

6. Please list the terms “त्यद्” etc. referred to in the सूत्रम् 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः। The त्यदादि-गण: is a subset of which गण: ?

7. Please do पदच्छेद: of अब्रवीच्छ्रूयताम् and mention the relevant rules.

8. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having heard the student’s words, the teacher said “Listen!”” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् “शिष्य” for student.

Advanced question:

1. Consider the प्रातिपदिकम् “तद्” . Since it is a प्रातिपदिकम् it is going to take one of the सुँप्-प्रत्यया: listed in 4-1-2. The सुँप्-प्रत्यया: have the विभक्ति-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-104 विभक्तिश्च । So it looks like 7-2-102 त्यदादीनामः will always apply and change “तद्” to “त” after using 6-1-97. Then why doesn’t पाणिनि: make the प्रातिपदिकम् as “त” to begin with? What is the point of the form “तद्” ?
(In short, find a case where 7-2-102 will not apply to “तद्” .)

2. Consider the सन्धि-कार्यम् between “पुङ्गव + ऋषभ” which is seen in the verse quoted from the अमर-कोश: in the first question. The steps are as follows:
पुङ्गव + ऋषभ = पुङ्गव् अ + ऋ षभ
= पुङ्गव् अर् षभ by 6-1-87 आद्गुणः , 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः।
At this stage, as per the सूत्रम् 6-1-85 अन्तादिवच्च the एकादेश: “अर्” can be considered as the ending member of the prior term – which means that we can look at this as पुङ्गवर् षभ। Now why doesn’t 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः apply to replace the पदान्त-रेफ: with a विसर्ग:?

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् was used to replace the ending मकार: of “वचनम्” by an अनुस्वार:?

2. Which सूत्रम् was used to get यस्य + अयम् = यस्यायम् ?

3. Which word in the verse translates to “residence”?

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