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चतुर्षु mLp

Today we will look at the form चतुर्षु from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम्

ते चास्य हयमुख्येषु तूर्णमुत्पत्य वानराः |
चतुर्षु सुमहावीर्या निपेतुर्भीमविक्रमाः || ६-८९-४९||

Gita Press translation “Nay, springing up rapidly, the aforesaid monkeys, who were endowed with remarkable valor and terrible prowess, fell on the four excellent horses of Indrajit.”

‘चतुर्’ gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्. The विवक्षा here is पुंलिङ्गे सप्तमी-बहुवचनम्. 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चतुर्’.

(1) चतुर् + सुप् ।

(2) चतुर् + सु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) चतुर्षु । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः ,the letter स् is replaced by the cerebral ष्.


1. The term “चतुर्” has पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-17 स्वादिष्वसर्वनमस्थाने। After step 2, why didn’t the ending रेफ: become a विसर्ग: by 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः ?

2. The अनुवृत्ति: of इण्कोः comes into the सूत्रम् 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः from 8-3-57. So in order for the following सकार: to change to a षकार: there must be a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: or a letter of the क-वर्ग: preceding. Here we have the रेफ: preceding the सकार: . The रेफ: is not a part of the क-वर्ग: . Is the रेफ: included in the इण्-प्रत्याहार: ? (Or does the इण्-प्रत्याहार: include only the letters इ and उ from the first माहेश्वर-सूत्रम् – अ इ उ ण् । ?)

3. The अमरकोश: gives thirteen words that mean “horse.” One of them is हय: (used in this verse as part of a compound.) Please list any five of the remaining twelve.
घोटके वीति ( पीति) तुरगतुरङ्गाश्वतुरङ्गमाः ।।२-८-४३।।
(इति त्रयोदश “घोटकस्य” नामानि)

4. Where is the प्रातिपदिकम् “हय” used in the गीता?

5. Just like we had the optional forms चतुर्णाम्/चतुर्ण्णाम् in the षष्ठी-बहुवचनम् , is there an optional final form (using 8-4-46 अचो रहाभ्यां द्वे) possible in this example?

6. As we have seen in previous examples, the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is used when we have the same doer doing two actions. The verbal root in the earlier action takes the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: . (The सूत्रम् is 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले । If there is a compound formation then the क्त्वा-प्रत्यय: is replaced by ल्यप् as per 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् ) . Please identify the word ending in the ल्यप्-प्रत्यय: in this verse. Who are the common doers and which is their later action?

7. Where is the सूत्रम् 7-1-17 जसः शी used in this verse? How about 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् ?

8. What is the purpose of having the पकार: as an अनुबन्ध: in the सुप्-प्रत्यय:?

9. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Three monkeys on the branch of a tree.” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् “शाखा” for branch, and “तरु” for tree. (The English word tree may have come from “तरु”)

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् was used to get च + अस्य = चास्य ?

2. Which word in the verse translates to “monkeys”?

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