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विनश्यति 3As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form विनश्यति 3As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb7-2-40.

पथि च्युतं तिष्ठति दिष्टरक्षितं गृहे स्थितं तद्विहतं विनश्यति ।
जीवत्यनाथोऽपि तदीक्षितो वने गृहेऽपि गुप्तोऽस्य हतो न जीवति ।। ७-२-४० ।।

Gita Press translation “A thing protected by destiny remains intact even though dropped on the road; while that which is consigned to destruction by (an evil) fate perishes even though staying at home. A forlorn creature watched over by Providence survives (even) in the forest : while he whose doom is decreed by Providence will not survive though guarded at home.”

विनश्यति is derived from the धातुः √नश् (दिवादि-गणः, णशँ अदर्शने, धातु-पाठः # ४. ९१)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

The धातुः “णशँ” is णोपदेशः, since it has an initial णकारः in the धातु-पाठः। By 6-1-65 णो नः, there is the substitution of नकारः in the place of the initial णकारः of a धातुः। So, now we have “नशँ”।
The ending अकारः (which is an इत्) of “नशँ” has a उदात्त-स्वरः। Thus the √नश्-धातुः is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √नश्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √नश्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) नश् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) नश् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) नश् + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) नश् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) नश् + श्यन् + ति । By 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन्, the श्यन्-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the दिवादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌

(6) नश्यति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

“वि” is the उपसर्ग: (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
वि + नश्यति = विनश्यति।

Questions:

1. Where has नश्यति been used in the गीता with the उपसर्ग: “प्र”?

2. Most of the operations which are prescribed for a अङ्गम् which has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा can be found in the “भस्य” अधिकार: which पाणिनि: runs from 6-4-129 to the end of the Sixth Chapter of the अष्टाध्यायी। But there is a सूत्रम् (which we have studied) which prescribes an operation for an अङ्गम् that has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा, but this सूत्रम् is outside the “भस्य” अधिकार:। Which सूत्रम् is it and where has it been used in this verse?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-113 हलि लोपः been used in the verse?

4. Which सूत्रम् has been used for the “तिष्ठ”-आदेश: in place of “स्था” in the form तिष्ठति?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When the Sun rises, darkness is destroyed.” Use the धातु: √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) with the उपसर्ग: “उद्” for “to rise” and use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “अन्धकार” for “darkness.” Use यदा/तदा।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All the sins of a person who studies the Geeta are destroyed.” Use the धातु: √इ (इङ् अध्ययने (नित्यमधिपूर्वः) २. ४१) with the उपसर्ग: “अधि” for “to study.” Use the appropriate forms of the pronouns “यद्” and “तद्”।

Easy questions:

1. Please do पदच्छेद: of “जीवत्यनाथोऽपि” and mention the relevant rules.

2. Why didn’t the ईकार: in the form जीवति take the गुणादेश: by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च?

नृत्यन्ति 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form नृत्यन्ति 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb11.3.32

क्वचिद्रुदन्त्यच्युतचिन्तया क्वचिद् धसन्ति नन्दन्ति वदन्त्यलौकिकाः ।
नृत्यन्ति गायन्त्यनुशीलयन्त्यजं भवन्ति तूष्णीं परमेत्य निर्वृताः ।। ११-३-३२ ।।

Gita Press translation “Sometimes they weep due to the anguish of separation from Śrī Hari, sometimes they laugh and rejoice and address Him (as if He were present by their side), indulge (joyfully) in dancing and singing, and sometimes thinking of the birthless Lord feel that they have reached the Supreme Person, and (thereby) become peaceful and silent. In this way their behaviour becomes altogether unconventional.”

नृत्यन्ति is derived from the धातुः √नृत् (दिवादि-गणः, नृतीँ गात्रविक्षेपे, धातु-पाठः #४. १०)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

The ending ईकारः (which is an इत्) of “नृतीँ” has a उदात्त-स्वरः। Thus the √नृत्-धातुः is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। (Neither 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् nor 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले applies.) Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √नृत्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √नृत्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) नृत् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) नृत् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) नृत् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) नृत् + श्यन् + झि । By 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन्, the श्यन्-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the दिवादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌

(5) नृत् + य + झि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। See question 3.

(6) नृत् + य + अन्ति । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः, “अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(7) नृत्यन्ति । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे, in the place of an अकार: which is not at the end of a पदम्, and the following गुण: letter, there is single substitute of the latter (the गुण: letter.)

Questions:

1. Where has 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् been used in the first five verses of Chapter Eleven of the गीता?

2. In the verse can you spot a धातु: which is इदित् (has इकार: as a इत् in the धातु-पाठ:)?

3. After step 5, why didn’t the ऋकार: of the अङ्गम् “नृत्” take the गुणादेश: by 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च?

4. In which word used in the verse has the शप्-प्रत्यय: taken the लुक् elision?

5. Where has the “आङ्”-प्रत्यय: been used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sometimes a word has no etymology.” Paraphrase to “Sometimes no etymology of a word exists.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “व्युत्पत्ति” for “etymology” and use √विद् (विदँ सत्तायाम् ४. ६७) for “to exist.” Use a word from the verse for “sometimes.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-4-62 झयो होऽन्यतरस्याम् been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् used in the steps in this example belongs to the “अङ्गस्य” अधिकार:?

दीव्यन्ति 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form दीव्यन्ति 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-61-35.

नैवाक्षकोविदा यूयं गोपाला वनगोचराः ।
अक्षैर्दीव्यन्ति राजानो बाणैश्च न भवादृशाः ।। १०-६१-३५ ।।

Gita Press translation “Being keepers of cows roaming in woods, you do not know the game of dice. Kings (alone) play at dice and sport with arrows, not men like you.”

दीव्यन्ति is derived from the धातुः √दिव् (दिवादि-गणः, दिवुँ क्रीडाविजिगीषाव्यवहारद्युतिस्तुतिमोदमदस्वप्नकान्तिगतिषु, धातु-पाठः #४. १)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the ending उकारः of “दिवुँ” is an इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्। After 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः only “दिव्” remains. This धातु: is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √दिव्-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √दिव्-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) दिव् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) दिव् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) दिव् + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(5) दिव् + श्यन् + झि । By 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् , the श्यन्-प्रत्यय: is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the दिवादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ । See question 2.

(7) दिव् + य + झि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते , 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) दिव् + य + अन्त् इ । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः -“अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(9) दिव् + यन्ति । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे, in the place of an अकार: which is not at the end of a पदम्, and the following गुण: letter, there is single substitute of the latter (the गुण: letter.)

(10) दीव्यन्ति । By 8-2-77 हलि च , the penultimate (उपधा) इक् letter of a verbal root ending in a वकारः or रेफः is made दीर्घः, when followed by a हल् (consonant).

Questions:

1. Where has 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् been used in the last five verses of Chapter Four of the गीता?

2. As stated in step 5, 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ । Can you recall another सूत्रम् (which we have studied) which is also a अपवाद: to 3-1-68?

3. Can you recall a निषेध-सूत्रम् (prohibition) to 8-2-77 हलि च (used in step 10 of this example)? Why didn’t that निषेध-सूत्रम् apply here?

4. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन्, the काशिका says शकारः सार्वधातुकार्थः। Please explain.

5. The वृत्ति: for the सूत्रम् 8-2-77 हलि च says – रेफवान्‍तस्‍य धातोरुपधाया इको दीर्घो हलि । Commenting on this the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – धातोः किम्? रेफान्तस्य पदस्य मा भूत्। अग्निः करोति। Please explain.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should not play at (with) dice.” Use a word from the verse for “with dice.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् was used to do उपधा-दीर्घ: (elongation of the penultimate letter) of the प्रातिपदिकम् “राजन्” in the form राजान: (प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्)?

2. Where has 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः been used in the verse?

धत्स्व 2As-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form धत्स्व 2As-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb7-8-10.

जह्यासुरं भावमिमं त्वमात्मनः समं मनो धत्स्व न सन्ति विद्विषः ।
ऋतेऽजितादात्मन उत्पथास्थितात्तद्धि ह्यनन्तस्य महत्समर्हणम् ।। ७-८-१० ।।

Gita Press translation “Abandon you this demonic disposition of yours and keep your mind equipoised. There are no enemies other than an unsubdued and errant mind. For that (viz., maintaining the poise of the mind) constitutes the eminent and correct procedure of worshipping the infinite.”

धत्स्व is derived from the धातुः √धा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके धातु-पाठः #३. ११)

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √धा-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √धा-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √धा-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः। In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √धा-धातुः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √धा-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, the प्रत्ययः is “थास्”।

(1) धा + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च , the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) धा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) धा + थास् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “थास्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “थास्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातोः” अधिकारः।

(4) धा + से । By 3-4-80 थासस्से, the थास्-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has टकार: as a इत्), gets “से” as the replacement. As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, से replaces the entire थास्-प्रत्ययः। से also gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ

(5) धा + स्व । By 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ, the एकारः of लोँट् which follows a सकारः or वकारः is replaced by “व” and “अम्” respectively.

(6) धा + शप् + स्व । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(7) धा + स्व । By 2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः, the शप्-प्रत्यय: following the verbal roots “हु” etc. gets “श्लु” (elision).

(8) धा + धा + स्व । By 6-1-10 श्लौ, a verbal root when followed by “श्लु” gets reduplicated.

(9) ध + धा + स्व । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(10) ध + ध् + स्व । By 6-4-112 श्नाऽभ्यस्तयोरातः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, the आकारः of the श्ना-प्रत्ययः or of a reduplicated root (अभ्यस्तम्) is elided. Note: “स्व” is ङिद्वत् by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्। This allows 6-4-112 to apply.
See question 5.

(11) द + ध् + स्व । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in reduplication (अभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(12) ध + ध् + स्व । By 8-2-38 दधस्तथोश्च, a letter of the बश्-प्रत्याहारः of the reduplicated verbal root √धा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) ending in a letter of the झष्-प्रत्याहारः, is substituted by a letter of the भष्-प्रत्याहारः, when followed by an affix beginning with a तकारः, थकारः, सकारः or the term “ध्व”।.

Note: Normally, as per 8-2-1, the दकारादेश: done by 8-4-54 should not be visible to 8-2-38. But then 8-2-38 would become useless – the conditions required for its application would never occur. So by the fact that पाणिनि: has composed (वचनसामर्थ्यात्) 8-2-38, it has to be given a chance to apply and hence it is allowed to see the operation done by 8-4-54. Also note that 8-2-40 झषस्तथोर्धोऽधः could not apply here because it contains the exclusion “अध:”। It doesn’t apply in the case of this धातु:।

(13) धत्स्व । By 8-4-55 खरि च, a झल् letter is replaced by a चर् letter when a खर् letter follows.

Questions:

1. Where has धत्स्व been used in the गीता?

2. Which अव्ययम् used in the verse has been translated to “other than.” Where is this अव्ययम् used in the गीता?

3. In the nine items in the conjugation table of √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके धातु-पाठः #३. ११) with लोँट्, आत्मनेपदम्, in which form does 8-4-53 झलां जश् झशि apply?

4. In the word “जहि” used in the beginning of the verse, the “हि”-प्रत्यय: is following an अङ्गम् “ज” which ends in a अकार:। Then why didn’t “हि” get elided by 6-4-105 अतो हेः?

5. What would have been the problem in this example if पाणिनि: had not said “अघो:” in the सूत्रम् 6-4-113 ई हल्यघोः?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Focus (place) your mind on the subject at hand.” Use √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके धातु-पाठः #३. ११) with the उपसर्ग: “आङ्” (ending ङकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्) for “to focus (place)” and use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “प्रकृत” for “subject at hand.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-2-109 दश्च been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् was used to replace the हकार: by a धकार: in तद्धि (= तद् + हि)?

सुप्यते 3Ps-लँट्

Today we will look at the form सुप्यते 3Ps-लँट् from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2-28-11.

सुप्यते पर्णशय्यासु स्वयं भग्नासु भूतले ।
रात्रिषु श्रमखिन्नेन तस्माद् दुःखतरं वनम् ।। २-२८-११ ।।

GitaPress translation “Exhausted through toil (entailed by search for food in the shape of fruits etc.) one has to lie down during nights on bed of (dry) leaves fallen of themselves. Hence a forest is a source of great suffering.”

सुप्यते is derived from the धातुः √स्वप् (ञिष्वपँ शये , अदादि-गणः, धातु-पाठः #२. ६३)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, भावे प्रयोग:।

The beginning “ञि” as well as the ending अकार: of the धातु: “ञिष्वपँ” gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः and 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् respectively. Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। After अनुबन्ध-लोप:, only “ष्वप्” remains. The beginning षकार: is replaced by सकार: as per 6-1-64 धात्वादेः षः सः। So now we have “स्वप्”।

Here the विवक्षा is भावे (impersonal passive.) By 1-3-13 भावकर्मणोः, when denoting the action of the verb (भावे) or the object of the verb (कर्मणि), आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः are used in the place of a लकार:। As per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “त” to “महिङ्” get the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। भावे प्रयोग: is always प्रथम-पुरुष:, एकवचनम् since it denotes an action. Hence the प्रत्यय: will be “त”।

(1) स्वप् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) स्वप् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) स्वप् + त । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “त” as the substitute for the लकारः। “त” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) स्वप् + ते । By 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे, the टि-भागः of a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has टकार: as a इत्), gets एकारः as the replacement.

(5) स्वप् + यक् + ते । By 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक्, the यक्-प्रत्ययः follows a धातुः when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः follows denoting the action of the verb (भावे) or the object of the verb (कर्मणि)। यक् gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्द्धधातुकं शेषः

(6) स्वप् + य + ते । By 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) स् उ अप् + य + ते । By 6-1-15 वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति , The verbal roots √वच् (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८), √स्वप् (ञिष्वपँ शये २. ६३) and also the nine verbal roots beginning with √यज् (यजँ देवपूजासङ्गतिकरणदानेषु १. ११५७) take सम्प्रसारणम् (ref. 1-1-45) when followed by an affix which is a कित्।
Note: The nine verbal roots √यज् etc are the last nine in the भ्वादि-गण:। They are as follows: √यज् (यजँ देवपूजासङ्गतिकरणदानेषु १. ११५७), √वप् (डुवपँ बीजसन्ताने | छेदनेऽपि १. ११५८), √वह् (वहँ प्रापणे १. ११५९), √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०), √वे (वेञ् तन्तुसन्ताने १. ११६१), √व्ये (व्येञ् संवरणे १. ११६२), √ह्वे (ह्वेञ् स्पर्धायां शब्दे च १. ११६३), √वद् (वदँ व्यक्तायां वाचि १. ११६४) and √श्वि (ट्वोँश्वि गतिवृद्ध्योः १. ११६५)।

(8) स् + उप् य + ते । By 6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च , when a सम्प्रसारणम् is followed by a अच् (vowel), there is a single replacement (in place of both the सम्प्रसारणम् and the following अच्) of the prior letter (the सम्प्रसारणम्)।

(9) सुप्यते ।

Questions:

1. In the last fifteen verses of Chapter Six of the गीता, can you spot a word in which 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक् as well as 6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च has been used?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-1-64 धात्वादेः षः सः, the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – आदेः किम्? लषति। Please explain.

3. Which term from the स्वरादि-गण: has been used in the verse?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Why don’t you tell the truth?” Paraphrase to passive “Why is the truth not told by you?” Use √वद् (वदँ व्यक्तायां वाचि १. ११६४) for “to tell” and the अव्ययम् “कस्मात्” for “why.”

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“A farmer sows seeds in a field.” Paraphrase to passive “Seeds are sown in a field by a farmer.” Use √वप् (डुवपँ बीजसन्ताने | छेदनेऽपि १. ११५८) for “to sow” and use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “कृषीवल” for “farmer.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Let the boys sleep in the afternoon.” Paraphrase to भावे प्रयोग: “Let (the action of) sleeping be done by the boys in the afternoon.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् “अपराह्ण” for “afternoon.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the “टा”-प्रत्यय: been used in the verse?

2. Which other term does पाणिनि: use to refer to the “टा”-प्रत्यय:?

सञ्जिहते 3Ap-लँट्

Today we will look at the form सञ्जिहते 3Ap-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-40-15.

त्वय्यव्ययात्मन्पुरुषे प्रकल्पिता लोकाः सपाला बहुजीवसङ्कुलाः ।
यथा जले सञ्जिहते जलौकसोऽप्युदुम्बरे वा मशका मनोमये ।। १०-४०-१५ ।।

Gita Press translation “Conceived in You, the perfect and imperishable person, who can (only) be hinted at by the mind, the (numberless) universes – teeming with innumerable Jīvas (embodied beings) – with their guardians move about like the eggs of tiny aquatic creatures in water or even like the (tiny) insects in (the interior of) an Udumbara fruit.”

जिहते is derived from the धातुः √हा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, ओँहाङ् गतौ, धातु-पाठः #३. ८)

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √हा-धातुः has ओकारः and ङकारः as इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् respectively. After 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः only “हा” remains. By 1-3-12 अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्, √हा-धातुः will get आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः। As per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “त” to “महिङ्” get the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √हा-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “झ”।

(1) हा + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) हा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हा + झ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झ” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झ” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातोः” अधिकारः।

(4) हा + झे । By 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे, the टि-भागः of a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has टकार: as a इत्), gets एकारः as the replacement.

(5) हा + शप् + झे । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(6) हा + झे । By 2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः, the शप्-प्रत्यय: following the verbal roots “हु” etc. gets “श्लु” (elision).

(7) हा + हा + झे । By 6-1-10 श्लौ, a verbal root when followed by “श्लु” gets reduplicated.

(8) हि + हा + झे । By 7-4-76 भृञामित्‌, when followed by “श्लु”, the ending letter of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) of √भृ (डुभृञ् धारणपोषणयोः #३. ६), √मा (माङ् माने शब्दे च #३. ७) and √हा (ओहाङ् गतौ #३.८) gets replaced by a इकारः।

(9) झि + हा + झे । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः
(क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्, ह्) are replaced by (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्, झ्) respectively.

(10) झि + हा + अत् ए। By 7-1-4 अदभ्यस्तात्‌, the झकारः of a प्रत्ययः that follows a reduplicated (ref. 6-1-5 उभे अभ्यस्तम्) root is substituted by ‘अत्’। See question 3.

(11) झिहते । By 6-4-112 श्नाऽभ्यस्तयोरातः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, the आकारः of the श्नाप्रत्ययः and of the reduplicated root is elided. (Note: Since the सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: “अते” is अपित्, by 1-2-4 it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has ङकार: as a इत्। This allows 6-4-112 to apply.) See question 4.

(12) जिहते । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

“सम्” is the उपसर्ग: (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे)।
सम् + जिहते = सञ्जिहते । 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः, 8-4-58 अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः

Questions:

1. Where has 6-1-10 श्लौ (used in step 7 of this example) been used in Chapter Seven of the गीता?

2. After removing the इत् letters of (ओँहाङ् गतौ, धातु-पाठः #३. ८) we get the form “हा”। Can you recall another (much more common) धातु: which also results in “हा” after the इत् letters are removed? (That धातु: also belongs to the जुहोत्यादि-गणः।)

3. Which other (besides 7-1-4 अदभ्यस्तात्‌) सूत्रम् could have been used in step 10 to get the same result?

4. Can you recall a सूत्रम् which is an अपवाद: for 6-4-112 श्नाऽभ्यस्तयोरातः? Why didn’t that सूत्रम् apply in this example (in step 11)? (Which condition was not satisfied)?

5. What would have been the final form in this example if the विवक्षा had been कर्मणि (instead of कर्तरि)? (Would 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि apply?)

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When the Sun rises, lotuses bloom.” Use √हा (ओँहाङ् गतौ, धातु-पाठः #३. ८) with the उपसर्ग: “उद्” for “to rise.” Use √कस् (कसँ गतौ १. ९९६) with the उपसर्ग: “वि” for “to bloom.” Use यदा/तदा।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot a यण्-आदेश: in the verse? (Look for a यण् letter – य्, व्, र्, ल् – which is preceded by a हल् and followed by a अच्)।

2. Can you spot three places in the verse where 8-3-22 हलि सर्वेषाम् has been used?

बिभृयात् 3As-विधिलिँङ्

Today we will look at the form बिभृयात् 3As-विधिलिँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB9-11-9.

नाहं बिभर्मि त्वां दुष्टामसतीं परवेश्मगाम् ।
स्त्रीलोभी बिभृयात्सीतां रामो नाहं भजे पुनः ।। ९-११-९ ।।

Gita Press translation “I would have you no more, a wicked and unchaste woman that you are, since you have lived in the house of another. King Rāma, who is excessively fond of his wife, may retain Sītā (in his house); (but) I am not going to accept you again (in any case).”

बिभृयात् is derived from the धातुः √भृ (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, डुभृञ् धारणपोषणयोः, धातु-पाठः #३.६)

The विवक्षा is विधिलिँङ, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √भृ-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः, by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले the √भृ-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √भृ-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।

In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√भृ” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √भृ-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

(1) भृ + लिँङ् । By 3-3-161 विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्, the affix लिङ् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of command, direction, invitation, request, inquiry and entreaty.

(2) भृ + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) भृ + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) भृ + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् , 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) भृ + त् । 3-4-100 इतश्च, the ending letter (इकारः) of a इकारान्तः (ending in a इकारः) परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः which came in the place of a ङित्-लकारः, is elided.

(6) भृ + यासुट् त् । By 3-4-103 यासुट् परस्मैपदेषूदात्तो ङिच्च, the परस्मैपदम् affixes of लिँङ् get यासुट् as an augment, and this augment is उदात्तः and a ङित्। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the यासुट्-आगमः before the प्रत्यय:।

(7) भृ + यास् त् । The उकार: in यासुट् is for pronunciation only (उच्चारणार्थम्)। The टकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) भृ + शप् + यास् त् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(9) भृ + यास् त् । By 2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः, the शप्-प्रत्यय: following the verbal roots “हु” etc. gets “श्लु” (elision).

(10) भृ + भृ + यास् त् । By 6-1-10 श्लौ, a verbal root when followed by “श्लु” gets reduplicated.

(11) भिर् + भृ + यास् त् । By 7-4-76 भृञामित्‌, when followed by “श्लु”, the ending letter of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) of √भृ (डुभृञ् धारणपोषणयोः #३. ६), √मा (माङ् माने शब्दे च #३. ७) and √हा (ओहाङ् गतौ #३.८) gets replaced by a इकारः। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (अ, इ, उ) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a रँ letter.

(12) भि + भृ + यास् त् । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः, of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(13) भि + भृ + या त् । By 7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्त्यस्य, the सकारः of a सार्वधातुक-लिङ् affix is elided, provided it is not the final letter of the affix. See question 5.

(14) बिभृयात् । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

Questions:

1. Where has 7-4-76 भृञामित्‌ been used in Chapter Fifteen of the गीता?

2. What would have been the final form in this example if a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय: had been used?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-76 भृञामित्‌, the काशिका says – त्रयाणामित्येव, जहाति। Please explain.

4. Where has the “इट्”-प्रत्यय: been used in the verse?

5. After step 13, why didn’t the ending ऋकार: of the अङ्गम् “भिभृ” take the गुणादेश: by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“You should take care of your (own) aged mother.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् “वृद्ध” (feminine “वृद्धा”) for “aged” and use √भृ (डुभृञ् धारणपोषणयोः, धातु-पाठः #३.६) for “to take care of.”

Easy questions:

1. The word स्त्रीलोभी used in the verse is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् of the प्रातिपदिकम् “स्त्रीलोभिन्”। Which सूत्रम् has been used to do the elongation of the penultimate letter (इकार:) of “स्त्रीलोभिन्”?

2. Where has 6-1-114 हशि च been used in the verse?

ब्रूयुः 3Ap-विधिलिँङ्

Today we will look at the form ब्रूयुः 3Ap-विधिलिँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb10-13-3.

शृणुष्वावहितो राजन्नपि गुह्यं वदामि ते ।
ब्रूयुः स्निग्धस्य शिष्यस्य गुरवो गुह्यमप्युत ।। १०-१३-३ ।।

Gita Press translation “Listen, O king, with (rapt) attention. I (proceed to) tell you even that which is most secret; for to a loving pupil preceptors impart even hidden things.”

ब्रूयुः is derived from the धातुः √ब्रू (अदादि-गणः, ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि, धातु-पाठः #२. ३९).

The विवक्षा is विधिलिँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम् ।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √ब्रू-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the ञकार:। It gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and hence takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोप:। Since ञकार: is an इत्, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √ब्रू-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √ब्रू-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√ब्रू” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √ब्रू-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “झि”।

(1) ब्रू + लिँङ् । By 3-3-161 विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ्, the affix लिङ् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of command, direction, invitation, request, inquiry and entreaty.

(2) ब्रू + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) ब्रू + झि । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झि” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) ब्रू + जुस् । By 3-4-108 झेर्जुस्, the affix झि of लिङ् is replaced by जुस् । जुस् also gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ

(5) ब्रू + यासुट् जुस् । by 3-4-103 यासुट् परस्मैपदेषूदात्तो ङिच्च , the परस्मैपदम् affixes of लिङ् get यासुट् as an augment, and this augment is उदात्तः and a ङित्। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the यासुट्-आगमः before the प्रत्यय:।

(6) ब्रू + यास् उस् । The उकार: in यासुट् is for pronunciation only (उच्चारणार्थम्)। The टकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The जकारः of जुस् takes लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending सकारः of जुस् from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) ब्रू + शप् + यास् उस् । by 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(8) ब्रू + यास् उस् । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(9) ब्रू + या उस् । By 7-2-79 लिङः सलोपोऽनन्‍त्‍यस्‍य, the सकारः of a सार्वधातुक-लिङ् affix is elided, provided it is not the final letter of the affix.।

(10) ब्रू + युस् । By 6-1-96 उस्यपदान्तात्‌ , in place of the preceding अवर्ण: (अकार:/आकार:), which is not at the end of a पदम्, and the following उकार: of the उस्-प्रत्यय:, there shall be a single substitute which is the latter (उकार:)।
Since the प्रत्यय: “युस्” is a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: which is अपित्, it becomes ङित्-वत् (as if it has ङकार: as an इत्) by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्। And then 1-1-5 ग्क्ङिति च prevents the गुणादेश: for the ending ऊकार: of the अङ्गम् “ब्रू” which would have been done by 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः

(11) ब्रूयुः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In the first verse of which chapter of the गीता has √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि, धातु-पाठः #२. ३९) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम्?

2. Which सूत्रम् has been used to make the “शृ”-अदेश: in the place of “श्रु” in the form शृणुष्व?

3. Do you notice something about the form शृणुष्व which doesn’t quite fit the rules of grammar?

4. Where has 7-3-101 अतो दीर्घो यञि been used in the verse?

5. Why didn’t 7-3-93 ब्रुव ईट् apply after step 10, even though “युस्” is a हलादि: सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय:?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Why did you tell this secret to everyone?” Use the अव्ययम् “कस्मात्” for “why”, use the pronoun “सर्व” (in the plural) for “everyone.” Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with “सर्व”। Use a word from the verse for “secret.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् used in the steps in this example belongs to the “एकः पूर्वपरयोः” अधिकार:?

2. Where has 8-3-32 ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् been used in the verse?

अजहात् 3As-लँङ्

Today we will look at the form अजहात् 3As-लँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb1-13-59.

इत्युक्त्वाथारुहत्स्वर्गं नारदः सहतुम्बुरुः ।
युधिष्ठिरो वचस्तस्य हृदि कृत्वाजहाच्छुचः ।। १-१३-५९ ।।

Gita Press translation “Having told him all this, the sage Nārada with Tumburu immediately ascended to heaven; and, treasuring up his words in his heart, Yudhiṣṭhira ceased sorrowing.”

अजहात् is derived from the धातुः √हा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, ओँहाक् त्यागे, धातु-पाठः #३.९)

The विवक्षा is लँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √हा-धातुः has ओकारः and ककारः as इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् respectively. After 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः only “हा” remains. It is devoid of any indications for bringing in आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यया:। Therefore, as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्, the √हा-धातुः, in कर्तरि प्रयोग:, will take the परस्मैपद-प्रत्यया: by default. As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “तिप्” to “मस्” get the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So √हा-धातुः can take only one of these nine प्रत्यया: in कर्तरि प्रयोग:। Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “तिप्”।

(1) हा + लँङ् । By 3-2-111 अनद्यतने लङ् , the affix लँङ् follows a धातुः when used in the sense of past not of today.

(2) हा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हा + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “तिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातो:” अधिकार:।

(4) हा + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) हा + त् । 3-4-100 इतश्च, the ending letter (इकारः) of a इकारान्तः (ending in a इकारः) परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः which came in the place of a ङित्-लकारः, is elided.

(6) हा + शप् + त् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(7) हा + त् । By 2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः, the शप्-प्रत्यय: following the verbal roots “हु” etc. gets “श्लु” (elision).

(8) हा + हा + त् । By 6-1-10 श्लौ, a verbal root when followed by “श्लु” gets reduplicated.

(9) झा + हा + त् । By 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or हकारः is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः
(क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्, ह्) are replaced by (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्, झ्) respectively.

(10) झ + हा + त् । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(11) अट् झहात् । by 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः – When followed by लुँङ्, लँङ् or लृँङ्, an अङ्गम् gets the अट्-आगमः which is उदात्तः। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the अट्-आगमः before the अङ्गम् ।

(12) अ झहात् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः is done by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(13) अजहात् । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

Questions:

1. In which chapter of the गीता has √हा (ओँहाक् त्यागे, धातु-पाठः #३.९) been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in two places?

2. Why didn’t the सूत्रम् 6-4-116 जहातेश्च apply in this example? (Which condition was not satisfied?)

3. In the nine items in the conjugation table of √हा (ओँहाक् त्यागे, धातु-पाठः #३.९) with लँङ्, in which form does 3-4-109 सिजभ्यस्तविदिभ्यश्च apply?

4. Can you spot a शस्-प्रत्यय: in the verse?

5. Which अधिकार-सूत्राणि exert their influence on the सूत्रम् 3-2-111 अनद्यतने लङ्?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Stop worrying.” Paraphrase to “Give up worry.” Use the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “चिन्ता” for “worry.”

Easy Questions:

1. By which सूत्रम् does the term कृत्वा get the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा?

2. Where has 8-4-63 शश्छोऽटि been used in the verse?

अहीयन्त 3Pp-लँङ्

Today we will look at the form अहीयन्त 3Pp-लँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb3-20-48.

येऽहीयन्तामुतः केशा अहयस्तेऽङ्ग जज्ञिरे ।
सर्पाः प्रसर्पतः क्रूरा नागा भोगोरुकन्धराः ।। ३-२०-४८ ।।

Gita Press translation “The hair that dropped from that body (as he apparently pulled them in a fit of excitement) were transformed into snakes, dear Vidura: while, even as the body crawled along (with its hands and feet contracted), there sprang from it ferocious serpents and Nāgas with their necks dilated in the form of hood.”

अहीयन्त is derived from the धातुः √हा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, ओँहाक् त्यागे, धातु-पाठः #३.९)

The विवक्षा is लँङ्, कर्मणि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √हा-धातुः has ओकारः and ककारः as इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् respectively. After 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः only “हा” remains.

Since the विवक्षा is कर्मणि (passive) only आत्मनेपदम् can be used as per 1-3-13 भावकर्मणोः – when denoting the action of the verb (भावे) or the object of the verb (कर्मणि), आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः are used in the place of a लकार:। As per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, the nine प्रत्यया: from “त” to “महिङ्” get the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। So in कर्मणि प्रयोगः, only one of these nine प्रत्यया: can be used. Since the विवक्षा is प्रथम-पुरुष-बहुवचनम्, the प्रत्ययः will be “झ”।

(1) हा + लँङ् । By 3-2-111 अनद्यतने लङ् , the affix लँङ् follows a धातुः when used in the sense of past not of today.

(2) हा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) हा + झ । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “झ” as the substitute for the लकारः। “झ” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातोः” अधिकारः।

(4) हा + यक् + झ । By 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक्, the यक्-प्रत्ययः follows a धातुः when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः follows denoting the action of the verb (भावे) or the object of the verb (कर्मणि)। यक् gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्द्धधातुकं शेषः

(5) हा + य + झ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) हा + य + अन्त् अ । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः -“अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(7) ही + य + अन्त । By 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि, the आकारः of the verbal roots having the घु-सञ्ज्ञा and the verbal roots √मा [मेङ् प्रणिदाने १. १११६, मा माने २. ५७, माङ् माने शब्दे च ३. ७, माङ् माने ४. ३७], √स्था [ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७], √गा [गै शब्दे १. १०६५, गाङ् गतौ १. ११०१, गा स्तुतौ ३. २६ as well as the गा-आदेश: done in place of इण् गतौ २. ४० and इक् स्मरणे (नित्यमधिपूर्वः) २. ४१, as well as the गाङ्-आदेश: in the place of इङ् अध्ययने (नित्यमधिपूर्वः) २. ४२], √पा [पा पाने १. १०७४], √हा [ओँहाक् त्यागे ३. ९] and √सो [षो अन्तकर्मणि ४. ४२] gets ईकारः as replacement, when followed by a हलादि: (beginning with a consonant) आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्।

(8) ही + यन्त । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे, in the place of an अकार: which is not at the end of a पदम्, and the following गुण: letter, there is single substitute of the latter (the गुण: letter.)

(9) अट् हीयन्त । by 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः, when followed by लुँङ्, लँङ् or लृँङ्, an अङ्गम् gets the अट्-आगमः which is उदात्तः। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the अट्-आगमः before the अङ्गम् ।

(10) अहीयन्त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Questions:

1. The यक्-प्रत्यय: (used in step 4 in this example) is used many times in the गीता। Where is it used for the first time in a तिङन्तं पदम्? Where is it used for the last time in a तिङन्तं पदम्?

2. Can you recall another सूत्रम् (besides 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि) by which पाणिनि: prescribes a ईकारादेश:?

3. In which सूत्रम् used in the steps in this example has the श्तिप्-प्रत्यय: been used?

4. What would have been the final form in this example if the विवक्षा had been कर्तरि (rather that कर्मणि)?

5. Which अव्ययम् used in the verse has been translated to “dear (Vidura)”?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Do whatever needs to be done.” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “कार्य” for “needs to be done.” Use the combination of यावत्/तावत् to express the meaning of “whatever.” Use √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) for “to do.”

Easy Questions:

1. Where is the सूत्रम् 8-3-17 भोभगोअघोअपूर्वस्य योऽशि used in the verse?

2. Can you spot a “शी”-आदेश: in the verse?

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