Home » 2011 » September » 27

Daily Archives: September 27, 2011

धत्स्व 2As-लोँट्

Today we will look at the form धत्स्व 2As-लोँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् Sb7-8-10.

जह्यासुरं भावमिमं त्वमात्मनः समं मनो धत्स्व न सन्ति विद्विषः ।
ऋतेऽजितादात्मन उत्पथास्थितात्तद्धि ह्यनन्तस्य महत्समर्हणम् ।। ७-८-१० ।।

Gita Press translation “Abandon you this demonic disposition of yours and keep your mind equipoised. There are no enemies other than an unsubdued and errant mind. For that (viz., maintaining the poise of the mind) constitutes the eminent and correct procedure of worshipping the infinite.”

धत्स्व is derived from the धातुः √धा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः, डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके धातु-पाठः #३. ११)

The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

Since the √धा-धातुः has ञकारः as इत् in the धातु-पाठः by 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √धा-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √धा-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः। In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as √धा-धातुः will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √धा-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्, the प्रत्ययः is “थास्”।

(1) धा + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च , the affix लोँट् comes after a धातुः when used in the sense of command/request.

(2) धा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) धा + थास् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “थास्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “थास्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम् – The affixes of the तिङ्-प्रत्याहारः and the affixes that have शकारः as an इत् get the designation of सार्वधातुकम् if they are prescribed in the “धातोः” अधिकारः।

(4) धा + से । By 3-4-80 थासस्से, the थास्-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has टकार: as a इत्), gets “से” as the replacement. As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, से replaces the entire थास्-प्रत्ययः। से also gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ

(5) धा + स्व । By 3-4-91 सवाभ्यां वामौ, the एकारः of लोँट् which follows a सकारः or वकारः is replaced by “व” and “अम्” respectively.

(6) धा + शप् + स्व । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent.

(7) धा + स्व । By 2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः, the शप्-प्रत्यय: following the verbal roots “हु” etc. gets “श्लु” (elision).

(8) धा + धा + स्व । By 6-1-10 श्लौ, a verbal root when followed by “श्लु” gets reduplicated.

(9) ध + धा + स्व । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

(10) ध + ध् + स्व । By 6-4-112 श्नाभ्यस्तयोरातः, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् or a ङित्, the आकारः of the श्ना-प्रत्ययः or of a reduplicated root (अभ्यस्तम्) is elided. Note: “स्व” is ङिद्वत् by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित्। This allows 6-4-112 to apply.
See question 5.

(11) द + ध् + स्व । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च, in reduplication (अभ्यासः), a letter of the झल्-प्रत्याहारः is substituted by a letter of the चर्-प्रत्याहारः or जश्-प्रत्याहारः। The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः

(12) ध + ध् + स्व । By 8-2-38 दधस्तथोश्च, a letter of the बश्-प्रत्याहारः of the reduplicated verbal root √धा (जुहोत्यादि-गणः डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) ending in a letter of the झष्-प्रत्याहारः, is substituted by a letter of the भष्-प्रत्याहारः, when followed by an affix beginning with a तकारः, थकारः, सकारः or the term “ध्व”।.

Note: Normally, as per 8-2-1, the दकारादेश: done by 8-4-54 should not be visible to 8-2-38. But then 8-2-38 would become useless – the conditions required for its application would never occur. So by the fact that पाणिनि: has composed (वचनसामर्थ्यात्) 8-2-38, it has to be given a chance to apply and hence it is allowed to see the operation done by 8-4-54. Also note that 8-2-40 झषस्तथोर्धोऽधः could not apply here because it contains the exclusion “अध:”। It doesn’t apply in the case of this धातु:।

(13) धत्स्व । By 8-4-55 खरि च, a झल् letter is replaced by a चर् letter when a खर् letter follows.


1. Where has धत्स्व been used in the गीता?

2. Which अव्ययम् used in the verse has been translated to “other than.” Where is this अव्ययम् used in the गीता?

3. In the nine items in the conjugation table of √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके धातु-पाठः #३. ११) with लोँट्, आत्मनेपदम्, in which form does 8-4-53 झलां जश् झशि apply?

4. In the word “जहि” used in the beginning of the verse, the “हि”-प्रत्यय: is following an अङ्गम् “ज” which ends in a अकार:। Then why didn’t “हि” get elided by 6-4-105 अतो हेः?

5. What would have been the problem in this example if पाणिनि: had not said “अघो:” in the सूत्रम् 6-4-113 ई हल्यघोः?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Focus (place) your mind on the subject at hand.” Use √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके धातु-पाठः #३. ११) with the उपसर्ग: “आङ्” (ending ङकार: is an इत् by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्) for “to focus (place)” and use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “प्रकृत” for “subject at hand.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-2-109 दश्च been used in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् was used to replace the हकार: by a धकार: in तद्धि (= तद् + हि)?

Recent Posts

September 2011