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ब्रवीषि 2As-लँट्

Today we will look at the form ब्रवीषि 2As-लँट् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1-17-22.

धर्मं ब्रवीषि धर्मज्ञ धर्मोऽसि वृषरूपधृक् ।
यदधर्मकृतः स्थानं सूचकस्यापि तद्भवेत् ।। १-१७-२२ ।।

Gita Press translation – The king said : “You speak what is right, O knower of Dharma (righteousness). Evidently you are Dharma (the god of virtue) in the guise of a bull. (You refuse to tell the name of your persecutor) only because (you know that) the lot which falls to a wrong-doer is also shared by the denouncer.”

ब्रवीषि is derived from the धातुः √ब्रू (अदादि-गणः, ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि, धातु-पाठः #२. ३९).

The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, मध्यम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम् ।

In the धातु-पाठः, the √ब्रू-धातुः has one इत् letter which is the ञकार:। It gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and hence takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोप:। Since ञकार: is an इत्, as per the सूत्रम् 1-3-72 स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले, the √ब्रू-धातुः will take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः when the fruit of the action (क्रियाफलम्) accrues to the doer (कर्त्रभिप्रायम् = कर्तृ-अभिप्रायम्)। In the remaining case – when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the doer – by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम् – the √ब्रू-धातुः will take परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः।
In reality though, this distinction of the fruit of the action accruing to the doer or not, is rarely honored in the language. So as a practical matter, a verbal root such as “√ब्रू” will take either आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः or परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः regardless of whether the fruit of the action accrues to the doer or not. In short, √ब्रू-धातुः will be उभयपदी। In this verse, it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्यय:।

Since the विवक्षा is मध्यम-पुरुष-एकवचनम्, the प्रत्यय: will be “सिप्”।

(1) ब्रू + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्, the affix लँट् comes after a धातुः when denoting an action in the present tense.

(2) ब्रू + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) ब्रू + सिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस् तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “सिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः। “सिप्” gets the सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(4) ब्रू + सि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) ब्रू + शप् + सि । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्, the शप्-प्रत्यय: is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: that is used signifying the agent. The शप्-प्रत्यय: which is a शित्, gets सार्वधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्

(6) ब्रू + सि । By 2-4-72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः, the शप्-प्रत्ययः takes the लुक् elision when following a verbal root belonging to अदादि-गणः।

(7) ब्रू + ईट् सि । By 7-3-93 ब्रुव ईट्, when preceded by the verbal root √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९), a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is हलादि: (beginning with a consonant) and is a पित्, gets ईट् as the augment. By 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the ईट्-आगमः is placed at the beginning of the सि-प्रत्ययः।

(8) ब्रू + ई सि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) ब्रो + ई सि By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकाऽर्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(10) ब्रवीसि । अव्-आदेशः by 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः, when an अच् letter follows, then in place of the एच् letters there is a respective substitution (ref. 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः) of अय् , अव् , आय् and आव् ।

(11) ब्रवीषि । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययो:, the letter स् is replaced by the cerebral ष् when preceded either by a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: or a letter of the क-वर्ग: (क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्)। This substitution only takes place if the स् is an आदेश: (substitute) or part of a प्रत्यय: (affix.)


1. Where has ब्रवीषि been used in the गीता?

2. Is there an alternate final form possible in this example?

3. Can you recall a सूत्रम् (which we have studied) in which the अनुवृत्ति: of “ईट्” comes in from 7-3-93 ब्रुव ईट्?

4. The काशिका makes the following comments on the सूत्रम् 7-3-93 ब्रुव ईट् –
हलि इत्येव, ब्रवाणि। पिति इत्येव, ब्रूतः। Please explain.

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Who said that I don’t like grammar?” Paraphrase this to “Who said that grammar is not pleasing unto me?” Use (रुचँ दीप्तावभिप्रीतौ च १. ८४७) for “to please.” Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with the प्रातिपदिकम् “अस्मद्” for “unto me.”

Advanced question:

1. The तत्त्वबोधिनी makes the following comment on the सूत्रम् 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययो: –
प्रत्ययशब्दः प्रत्ययावयवे लाक्षणिकः, “हलि सर्वेषाम्” इति निर्देशात्। Please explain.

Easy questions:

1. Can you recall a सूत्रम् (which we have studied) which is an अपवाद: for 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः?

2. Where has 6-1-113 अतो रोरप्लुतादप्लुते been used in the verse?

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